This study aimed to examine changes in physical education (PE) programs nation-wide from 2006 to 2010 by analyzing the data reported in the Shape of the Nation published by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education. Means and standard deviations for numeric variables in the reports were computed. For categorical variables, percentages were calculated. Data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon test. The data from this study indicate a significant change in elementary PE as more states have mandated elementary PE and licensed elementary PE teachers. Significant increases in required PE units for high school graduation were also noted, indicating a positive change toward enhancing high school PE. However, the percentages of states with funding for professional development and required PE coordinator decreased significantly, suggesting that more work needs to be done if school PE is to provide the help and support requested by public health agencies.
Xiaofen Deng Keating, Prithwi Raj Subramaniam, Rulan Shangguan and Li Chen
This study investigated the current levels of teachers’ knowledge about and views of the National Standards for Physical Education (NASPE, 1995) and factors that influenced the teachers’ understandings of and interpretations of the standards. Twenty-five elementary and secondary physical education teachers voluntarily participated in this study. Data were collected primarily through 25 formal interviews and observing 78 lessons taught by the teachers. Data were analyzed using constant comparison techniques. Findings indicated that: a) personal commitment is a key factor contributing to teachers’ growing knowledge about the standards, b) active participation in professional development activities helps teachers stay current, and c) understanding of the standards is an influential determinant of the teachers’ attitude toward the standards.
Pamela A. Bechtel and Mary O’Sullivan
The purpose of this study was to explore enhancers and inhibitors that impacted 4 secondary physical education teachers to make changes in their programs. An interpretivist approach was used to understand the physical educators’ change process. Data were collected from document analyses, participant information sheets, interviews, discussion groups, and observing classes. Data were analyzed as 4 case studies using inductive analysis that examined emergent themes for each participant. A cross-case analysis highlighted the common enhancers and inhibitors for the teachers’ change process. The enhancers to change were the teachers’ visions and beliefs of physical education and support from principals, colleagues, and students. The inhibitors to change were district practices and policies and educational priorities. Gaining a better understanding of the teacher change process will help to design more effective professional development programs for secondary physical education teachers.
Erin E. Centeio, Heather Erwin and Darla M. Castelli
As public health concerns about physical inactivity and childhood obesity continue to rise, researchers are calling for interventions that comprehensively lead to more opportunities to participate in physical activity (PA). The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics and attitudes of trained physical education teachers during the implementation of a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program at the elementary level. Using a collective case study design, interviews, observations, field notes, open-ended survey questions, and an online forum monitoring guided the interpretation of teacher perceptions and development of emergent themes. Qualitative data analysis was conducted for each individual teacher and then across the ten teachers which produced four major themes: (a) Leading the Charge: Ready, Set, Go!, (b) Adoption versus Adaptation: Implementation Varies, (c) Social Media’s Place in the Professional Development (PD) Community, and (d) Keys to Successful Implementation. It can be concluded that, based on these findings, elementary physical education teachers are ready and willing to implement CSPAP. Key factors that may influence this implementation are discussed.
Natalie Jayne Lander, Lisa Michele Barnett, Helen Brown and Amanda Telford
The purpose of this study was to investigate instruction and assessment of fundamental movement skills (FMSs) by Physical Education (PE) teachers of Year 7 girls. Of 168 secondary school PE teachers, many had received little FMSs professional development, and although most assessed student FMSs proficiency, the quality of assessment was variable. Neither years of experience nor confidence influenced the quality of assessment tools used; however, greater FMSs training improved assessment practice regularity. Teachers more recently out of preservice were more confident in demonstrating FMSs. The results suggest that FMSs education for teachers should be a priority inclusion in both the training of preservice teachers and the ongoing professional development of in-service teachers.
Anna Stodter and Christopher J. Cushion
Recent perspectives concerning the learning and professional development of sport coaches have underlined a need to investigate social, relational, contextual and theoretical issues in increasingly sophisticated and pragmatic empirical approaches ( Lyle, 2018 ; Townsend, Cushion, & Smith, 2017
Jana L. Fogaca, Jack C. Watson II and Sam J. Zizzi
trainees’ development, would be know-how (i.e., intake, treatment plan, and execution) and professional development (i.e., reflections, working principles, and coping with dilemmas). A weakness of this study, however, was that it relied on supervisees’ notes on what they would like to discuss in
Stephen M. Roth
Higher education faculty have many responsibilities, with teaching as arguably the most public of those yet also the task for which many are least prepared. Professional development around teaching and learning can provide faculty with the knowledge and skills needed to improve student learning while also improving job satisfaction. The present paper describes the use of faculty learning communities as a best practice for professional development around teaching. Such communities engage a group of participants over time and provide a way to impart knowledge and resources around teaching and learning, encourage application of new skills in the classroom, and evaluate and refect on the effectiveness of those trials. Research shows that time spent in faculty learning communities translates into improvements in both teaching effectiveness and student learning. Resources are provided for administrators interested in developing and supporting faculty learning communities around teaching and learning.
Nathalie Aelterman, Maarten Vansteenkiste, Lynn Van den Berghe, Jotie De Meyer and Leen Haerens
The present intervention study examined whether physical education (PE) teachers can learn to make use of autonomy-supportive and structuring teaching strategies. In a sample of 39 teachers (31 men, M = 38.51 ± 10.44 years) and 669 students (424 boys, M = 14.58 ± 1.92 years), we investigated whether a professional development training grounded in self-determination theory led to changes in (a) teachers’ beliefs about the effectiveness and feasibility of autonomy-supportive and structuring strategies and (b) teachers’ in-class reliance on these strategies, as rated by teachers, external observers, and students. The intervention led to positive changes in teachers’ beliefs regarding both autonomy support and structure. As for teachers’ actual teaching behavior, the intervention was successful in increasing autonomy support according to students and external observers, while resulting in positive changes in teacher-reported structure. Implications for professional development and recommendations for future research are discussed.
Andy Gillham, Michael Doscher, Jim Krumpos, Michelle Martin Diltz, Nate Moe, Shepard Allen and Reese Bridgeman
that they recognize the need to be more flexible and adapt to current situations the longer they coach. Interestingly, SCC have also commented that their professional development had to include activities focused on managing relationships with athletes, coaches, and administrators while simultaneously