Jamie Carlson and Aron O'Cass
How professional team-based sport organizations can optimize their e-service platform and manage their brand in an increasingly multichannel marketing environment is a critical issue. This study examines how sports consumers’ (i.e., fans’) perceptions of e-service quality, brand strength, and image congruency between the sport brands’ offline image and online image affects the development of consumers’ trust in the team’s website. In addition, the study explores the role of team website trust in developing team website loyalty, as well the role of loyalty in actual purchase frequency from the teams’ website. Data were collected via an online survey of sports consumers of e-services delivered by professional sport teams. The results indicate that sport team brand strength, followed by teams website e-service quality and brand image congruency between the teams online and offline activity are significant determinants of trust in the teams’ website, with online trust strongly influencing website loyalty intentions.
Richard J. Cebula, Richard Austin, Kimberly Wildener and Willie J. Belton
This study finds that, due to the timing of games and excess capacity considerations regarding public mass transit, a more functional/usable mass transit system may benefit NFL franchise-operating income but may be nonbeneficial to NBA and MLB franchise incomes. The empirical results were obtained using ordinary least squares estimates for 1993 and allow for a variety of factors, including ticket prices, population size, win/loss records, and stadium/ arena size.
Margaret Keiper, Dylan Williams and Gil Fried
Fraud is a very broad term, but the underlying theme is the intentional act of deception for personal financial gain. This case study highlights three examples of fraud at different levels of sport: youth, collegiate, and professional. Students are provided a broad perspective of financial fraud and are exposed to differing types of criminal activity at each level of sport. Furthermore, the authors provide an understanding of financial fraud, illegal activities related to fraud, and the responsibilities that all sport management professionals have within various positions at each respective level. Finally, this case provides students with an opportunity to suggest solutions and deterrents for dealing with financial fraud at each level. Specifically, the authors provide a rationale for the use of internal controls within an organization to segregate an organization’s financial responsibilities and reduce the risk of financial fraud.
Corey P. Ochs, Melissa C. Kay and Johna K. Register-Mihalik
exposures in football 1 to 1.55/1000 athlete exposures in ice hockey. 2 Professional sports leagues, such as the National Football League (NFL) and National Hockey League (NHL), have instituted policies to assess and manage concussions, including return to play; however, little is known about the
Patrick Ward, Johann Windt and Thomas Kempton
arise in the high-pressure daily training environment. Basic dashboards and reports underpinned by heuristics may be most effective in this area. 9 The slow approach more closely reflects critical scientific inquiry—leading to higher order understanding of the problems faced in the professional sports
This article uses a simple approach to address the issue of how revenue sharing in professional sports leagues can affect the allocation of free agent players to teams. To affect the allocation of free agents, the imposition of revenue sharing must alter the ranking of bidding teams in terms of maximum salary offers. Two types of revenue sharing systems are considered: traditional gate revenue sharing and pooled revenue sharing. The article suggests that team rankings for ability to pay are not affected by pooled revenue sharing, however the distribution of player salaries will be affected asymmetrically. Traditional gate revenue sharing can alter the ability to pay rankings for teams, depending upon playing schedules and the closeness of revenues between closely ranked teams. Revenue data for two professional sports leagues provide evidence in favor of the model predictions.
This article examines the relationship between player compensation in college football and competitive balance on the field. It shows that National Collegiate Athletic Association rule changes restricting football-player compensation are not associated with an improvement in football’s competitive balance. Although college football is marginally more balanced than professional sports in any given year, an examination of cumulative records spanning numerous seasons proves college football to be as unbalanced as professional sports. The movement toward reducing player compensation, coincident with an increasing value to player talent, raises issues over how the financial gain from college football talent should be used. The significant degree of talent (and financial) imbalance among college football teams suggests that more attention should be paid to the determinants of talent distribution in college football.
Brandi Watkins and Regina Lewis
In this case study, the authors take a first look at how professional sports teams are using mobile apps as part of their branding and marketing strategies, as well as to enhance fan experience. Through the use of quantitative content-analysis methodology, professional sports teams’ mobile apps (N = 72) are analyzed to assess branding and marketing strategies and opportunities for fan engagement. The branding strategies most prevalent on the mobile apps include information about the teams and their performance. In terms of marketing strategies, 32 of the mobile apps provide an opportunity for fans to purchase team merchandise, and 75% provide an opportunity for fans to purchase tickets. Fan-engagement features that were most prevalent in mobile apps include check-in features (40%) and fantasy-league information (33%). Nearly 90% of mobile apps in the sample integrated Twitter, while 65% provided fans with access to Facebook.
Julie Burns and Lynn Dugan
For many professional sports, nutrition is not recognized as an important component of the team's training program. The implementation of a nutrition program for one professional hockey team has had positive results. Players who had been unable to maintain their weight during the season can now maintain their weight and be prepared for the playoffs. Others have improved their endurance with proper fluid and carbohydrate replacement. Working with the entire time—coaching staff, trainers and players—has led to the success of this program.