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Richard J. Cebula, Richard Austin, Kimberly Wildener and Willie J. Belton

This study finds that, due to the timing of games and excess capacity considerations regarding public mass transit, a more functional/usable mass transit system may benefit NFL franchise-operating income but may be nonbeneficial to NBA and MLB franchise incomes. The empirical results were obtained using ordinary least squares estimates for 1993 and allow for a variety of factors, including ticket prices, population size, win/loss records, and stadium/ arena size.

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Pavel Dietz, Rolf Ulrich, Andreas Niess, Raymond Best, Perikles Simon and Heiko Striegel

Nutritional supplements (NS) are defined as concentrated sources of nutrients and other substances that have a nutritional or physiological effect and that are used in high frequency among athletes. The study aimed to create a prediction profile for young elite athletes to identify those athletes who have a higher relative risk for using NS. The second objective was to examine the hypothesis that the consumption of NS paves a gateway for the use of illicit drugs and doping substances. A self-designed anonymous paper-and-pencil questionnaire was used to examine the prevalence of NS consumption, doping, and illicit drug use in elite athletes with a mean age of 17 years (SD = 4 years). Logistic regression analysis was employed to assess whether NS consumption can be predicted by independent variables (e.g., biographical data, training characteristics, drug consumption behavior) to create the prediction profile for NS use. 55% and 5% of the athletes (n = 536) responded positively to having used NS and illicit drugs, respectively. Nutritional supplement consumption was positively correlated with age (OR: 1.92; CI: 1.21 to 3.05), the desire to enhance performance to become an Olympic or World Champion (OR: 3.72; CI: 2.33 to 6.01), and being educated about NS (OR: 2.76; CI: 1.73 to 4.45). It was negatively correlated with training frequency (OR: 0.55; CI: 0.35 to 0.86) and the use of nicotine (OR: 0.29; CI: 0.1 to 0.74) but did not correlate with illicit drug use and alcohol consumption. The present results show that NS are used on a large scale in elite sports. The prediction profile presented in this article may help to identify those athletes who have a high risk for using NS to plan potential education and prevention models more individually.

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Margaret Keiper, Dylan Williams and Gil Fried

Fraud is a very broad term, but the underlying theme is the intentional act of deception for personal financial gain. This case study highlights three examples of fraud at different levels of sport: youth, collegiate, and professional. Students are provided a broad perspective of financial fraud and are exposed to differing types of criminal activity at each level of sport. Furthermore, the authors provide an understanding of financial fraud, illegal activities related to fraud, and the responsibilities that all sport management professionals have within various positions at each respective level. Finally, this case provides students with an opportunity to suggest solutions and deterrents for dealing with financial fraud at each level. Specifically, the authors provide a rationale for the use of internal controls within an organization to segregate an organization’s financial responsibilities and reduce the risk of financial fraud.

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M. Ann Hall

’s professional sports in nineteenth-century North America—what sport historian Roberta Park called “contesting the norm.” 6 Mostly, these athletes were circus performers, pedestriennes (race walkers), wrestlers, boxers, shooters, natationists (swimmers), baseball players, high-wheel and safety bicycle racers

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Corey P. Ochs, Melissa C. Kay and Johna K. Register-Mihalik

exposures in football 1 to 1.55/1000 athlete exposures in ice hockey. 2 Professional sports leagues, such as the National Football League (NFL) and National Hockey League (NHL), have instituted policies to assess and manage concussions, including return to play; however, little is known about the

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Patrick Ward, Johann Windt and Thomas Kempton

arise in the high-pressure daily training environment. Basic dashboards and reports underpinned by heuristics may be most effective in this area. 9 The slow approach more closely reflects critical scientific inquiry—leading to higher order understanding of the problems faced in the professional sports

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Katherine Baird

This article examines the relationship between player compensation in college football and competitive balance on the field. It shows that National Collegiate Athletic Association rule changes restricting football-player compensation are not associated with an improvement in football’s competitive balance. Although college football is marginally more balanced than professional sports in any given year, an examination of cumulative records spanning numerous seasons proves college football to be as unbalanced as professional sports. The movement toward reducing player compensation, coincident with an increasing value to player talent, raises issues over how the financial gain from college football talent should be used. The significant degree of talent (and financial) imbalance among college football teams suggests that more attention should be paid to the determinants of talent distribution in college football.

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Duane Rockerbie

This article uses a simple approach to address the issue of how revenue sharing in professional sports leagues can affect the allocation of free agent players to teams. To affect the allocation of free agents, the imposition of revenue sharing must alter the ranking of bidding teams in terms of maximum salary offers. Two types of revenue sharing systems are considered: traditional gate revenue sharing and pooled revenue sharing. The article suggests that team rankings for ability to pay are not affected by pooled revenue sharing, however the distribution of player salaries will be affected asymmetrically. Traditional gate revenue sharing can alter the ability to pay rankings for teams, depending upon playing schedules and the closeness of revenues between closely ranked teams. Revenue data for two professional sports leagues provide evidence in favor of the model predictions.

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Brandi Watkins and Regina Lewis

In this case study, the authors take a first look at how professional sports teams are using mobile apps as part of their branding and marketing strategies, as well as to enhance fan experience. Through the use of quantitative content-analysis methodology, professional sports teams’ mobile apps (N = 72) are analyzed to assess branding and marketing strategies and opportunities for fan engagement. The branding strategies most prevalent on the mobile apps include information about the teams and their performance. In terms of marketing strategies, 32 of the mobile apps provide an opportunity for fans to purchase team merchandise, and 75% provide an opportunity for fans to purchase tickets. Fan-engagement features that were most prevalent in mobile apps include check-in features (40%) and fantasy-league information (33%). Nearly 90% of mobile apps in the sample integrated Twitter, while 65% provided fans with access to Facebook.