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Pedro Gómez-Carmona, Ismael Fernández-Cuevas, Manuel Sillero-Quintana, Javier Arnaiz-Lastras and Archit Navandar

. Study Design A cross-sectional and prospective study design was used to compare 2 injury prevention programs applied over 2 consecutive preseasons: a conventional injury prevention program (CPP) applied over the first preseason (48 d) and an infrared thermography injury prevention program (IRTPP

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Judith J. Prochaska, James F. Sallis, Donald J. Slymen and Thomas L. McKenzie

One mission of physical education (PE) is the promotion of enjoyable physical activity participation. PE enjoyment of 414 elementary school students (51% male, 77% Caucasian) was examined in a 3-year prospective study. Analyzed using Generalized Estimating Equations, PE enjoyment decreased significantly from the fourth to sixth grade (p < .001) and was lower among girls (p < .001) and students not in organized sports (p < .005). Ethnicity and body mass index were not significant predictors of PE enjoyment. Girls, older children, and those not on sports teams are especially dependent on PE as the setting for accruing health-related physical activity, and strategies are needed to enhance their PE enjoyment.

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Pia Laukkanen, Markku Kauppinen and Eino Heikkinen

Identifying predictors of functional limitations among the elderly is essential for planning and implementing appropriate preventive services. The purpose of this prospective study was to examine baseline physical activity as a predictor of health and functional ability outcomes 5 years later in people age 75 and 80 years at baseline. A clear trend was observed: The more physically active subjects had better health and functional ability compared to their more sedentary counterparts. After controlling for the baseline status, the degree of physical activity did not predict future disability but still maintained its predictive role at the level of disease severity. It is suggested that the level of habitual physical activity is an important predictor of health and functional ability among elderly people. Presumably, however, there is a reciprocal causal relationship between physical activity and health in elderly people. Physical activity counseling should therefore be included in preventive health strategies for the elderly.

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Chia-Lin Li, Feng-Hsuan Liu and Jen-Der Lin

The purpose of this prospective study was to examine the effect of physical activity independent of obesity on metabolic risk factors. A total of 358 participants were recruited from the Department of Health Management of Chang Gung Medical Center. Physical activity was assessed using a 3-d activity record. Body-mass index (BMI) and metabolic risk factors were also assessed. Our findings demonstrate that an effect of obesity that was statistically independent of the levels of physical activity is associated with metabolic risk factors. Moreover, physical activity displayed inverse associations with triglycerides, and fasting plasma glucose and a positive association with HDL cholesterol. Those participants with time spent in moderate activity more than 0.5 h each day had significantly less risk of high fasting glucose. Significantly, these associations were independent of BMI.

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Colin A. Armstrong, James F. Sallis, Melbourne F. Hovell and C. Richard Hofstetter

Components of the transtheoretical model of change were examined in a prospective study of the adoption of vigorous exercise in adults. Respondents to a random mail survey were resurveyed 2 years later. Those who reported no vigorous exercise at baseline were classified as either contemplators (n = 213) or precontemplators (n = 188). Contemplators had higher baseline self-efficacy scores than precontemplators (p < .001). In multivariate analyses, baseline stage of change was a significant predictor (p < .0005) of later adoption of vigorous exercise, even after controlling for differences in age, gender, and self-efficacy. During the first 6 months postbaseline, contemplators were nearly twice as likely as precontemplators to progress to the stage of action (46% vs. 24%), and four times more likely to progress to the stage of maintenance (25% vs. 6%). Use of the transtheoretical model in the study of exercise was supported in this prospective examination of exercise in a community sample.

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Patricia F. Coogan, Laura F. White, Stephen R. Evans, Julie R. Palmer and Lynn Rosenberg

Background:

Influences on TV viewing time, which is associated with adverse health outcomes such as obesity and diabetes, need clarification. We assessed the relation of neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and walkability with TV viewing time in the Black Women’s Health Study, a prospective study of African American women.

Methods:

We created neighborhood SES and walkability scores using data from the U.S. census and other sources. We estimated odds ratios for TV viewing 5+ hours/day compared with 0–1 hours/day for quintiles of neighborhood SES and walkability scores.

Results:

Neighborhood SES was inversely associated with TV viewing time. The odds ratio for watching 5+ hours/day in the highest compared with the lowest quintile of neighborhood SES was 0.66 (95% CI 0.54–0.81). Neighborhood walkability was not associated with TV viewing time.

Conclusions:

Neighborhood SES should be considered in devising strategies to combat the high levels of sedentariness prevalent in African American women.

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Simon M. Luethi, Edward C. Frederick, Michael R. Hawes and Benno M. Nigg

The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of footwear on the kinematics and the mechanical load on the lower extremities during fast lateral movements in tennis. The method used was a prospective study. Two types of tennis shoes were randomly distributed among 229 tennis players. The subjects were measured before starting a 3-month test period. The study showed that the kinematics of the lower extremities and internal load conditions during fast lateral movements in tennis are highly influenced by the type of shoe worn. The results further suggest that a prospective biomechanical analysis can be used to establish assumptions concerning the etiology of pain and injuries in sports related activities.

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Jennifer L. Etnier

Alzheimer's disease is a chronic illness characterized by clinical cognitive impairment. A behavioral strategy that is being explored in the prevention of Alzheimer's disease is physical activity. Evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) testing the effects of physical activity for cognitively normal older adults supports that physical activity benefits cognitive performance. Evidence from prospective studies supports a protective effect of physical activity with reductions in the risk of cognitive decline ranging from 28% to 45%. RCTs with cognitively impaired older adults also generally support positive effects with greater benefits evident for aerobic interventions. Research examining the potential moderating role of apolipoprotein E (APOE) has yielded mixed results, but the majority of the studies support that physical activity most benefits those who are at greatest genetic risk of Alzheimer's disease. Future directions for research are considered with an emphasis on the need for additional funding to support this promising area of research.

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Hannah M. Badland and Grant M. Schofield

Background:

Leisure time physical activities have been a priority in recent years for many health practitioners, with transport-related physical activity (TPA) largely ignored. The urban environment has altered in the last few decades, increasing the reliance on automobiles. Simultaneously we have seen increases in obesity and other non-communicable diseases related to sedentary lifestyles.

Methods:

Information was sourced from major health databases. The remainder of the literature was directed from citations in articles accessed from the initial search.

Results:

Clear health benefits result from regular TPA engagement, with opportunities closely linked to accessible urban design infrastructure. Much of the existing evidence, however, has been extracted from cross-sectional research, rather than interventions. As such, drawing causal relationships is not yet possible.

Conclusions:

Existing evidence necessitates TPA research and promotion should be public health and urban design priorities. Collaborative research needs to incorporate prospective study designs to understand TPA behavior.

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Anna E. Greer, Xuemei Sui, Andréa L. Maslow, Beau Kjerulf Greer and Steven N. Blair

Background:

To date, no longitudinal studies have examined the influence of sedentary behavior on metabolic syndrome development while accounting for cardiorespiratory fitness.

Purpose and Methods:

This prospective study examined the relationship between sedentary behavior and incident metabolic syndrome while considering the effects of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness on the association among 930 men enrolled in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study.

Results:

A total of 124 men developed metabolic syndrome during 8974 person-years of exposure. After adjusting for covariates, men with middle and high sedentary behavior had 65% and 76% higher risks of developing metabolic syndrome, respectively, than men with low sedentary behavior (linear trend P = .011). This association remained significant after additional adjustment for activity status and cardiorespiratory fitness. Cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity were also inversely associated with metabolic syndrome, even after adjustment for sedentary behavior.

Conclusions:

The findings highlight the importance of reducing sedentary behavior, increasing physical activity, and improving cardiorespiratory fitness for preventing metabolic syndrome.