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Ulrika Andersson-Hall, Stefan Pettersson, Fredrik Edin, Anders Pedersen, Daniel Malmodin and Klavs Madsen

; Morton et al., 2010 ), and exercise-induced immunosuppression ( Gleeson, 2016 ). Ingesting protein in the recovery phase between sessions could potentially be a beneficial strategy to recover immune function ( Cruzat et al., 2014 ) and muscle force capacity ( Buckley et al., 2010 ), and to counteract

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Bill I. Campbell, Danielle Aguilar, Laurin Conlin, Andres Vargas, Brad Jon Schoenfeld, Amey Corson, Chris Gai, Shiva Best, Elfego Galvan and Kaylee Couvillion

Dietary protein is an essential component of the human diet. The constituent amino acids of dietary proteins are used to build body tissues, and thus protein consumption directly influences the accretion of muscle mass ( Atherton & Smith, 2012 ). Acute nitrogen balance studies indicate that

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Peter W.R. Lemon

This paper reviews the factors (exercise intensity, carbohydrate availability, exercise type, energy balance, gender, exercise training, age, and timing of nutrient intake or subsequent exercise sessions) thought to influence protein need. Although there remains some debate, recent evidence suggests that dietary protein need increases with rigorous physical exercise. Those involved in strength training might need to consume as much as 1.6 to 1.7 g protein ⋅ kg−1 day−1 (approximately twice the current RDA) while those undergoing endurance training might need about 1.2 to 1.4 g ⋅ kg−1 day−1 (approximately 1.5 times the current RDA). Future longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these recommendations and assess whether these protein intakes can enhance exercise performance. Despite the frequently expressed concern about adverse effects of high protein intake, there is no evidence that protein intakes in the range suggested will have adverse effects in healthy individuals.

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Alistair R. Mallard, Rebecca T. McLay-Cooke and Nancy J. Rehrer

Effects of protein versus mixed macronutrient supplementation on total energy intake (TEI) and protein intake during an ad libitum diet were examined. Trained males undertook two, 2-week dietary interventions which were randomized, double blinded, and separated by 2 weeks. These were high-protein supplementation (HP: 1034.5 kJ energy, 29.6 g protein, 8.7 g fat and 12.3 g CHO) and standard meal supplementation (SM: 1039 kJ energy, 9.9 g protein, 9.5 g fat, and 29.4 g CHO) consumed daily following a week of baseline measures. Eighteen participants finished both interventions and one only completed HP. TEI (mean ± SD) was not different between baseline (11148 ± 3347 kJ) and HP (10705 ± 3143 kJ) nor between baseline and SM (12381 ± 3877 kJ), however, TEI was greater with SM than HP (923 ± 4015 kJ p = .043). Protein intake (%TEI) was greater with HP (22.4 ±6.2%) than baseline (19.4 ± 5.4%; p = .008) but not SM (20.0 ± 5.0%). No differences in absolute daily protein intake were found. Absolute CHO intake was greater with SM than HP (52.0 ± 89.5 g, p = .006). No differences in fat intake were found. Body mass did not change between baseline (82.7 ± 11.2 kg) and either HP (83.1 ± 11.7 kg) or SM (82.9 ± 11.0 kg). Protein supplementation increases the relative proportion of protein in the diet, but doesn’t increase the absolute amount of total protein or energy consumed. Thus some compensation by a reduction in other foods occurs. This is in contrast to a mixed nutrient supplement, which does not alter the proportion of protein consumed but does increase TEI.

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Fernando Naclerio, Eneko Larumbe-Zabala, Mar Larrosa, Aitor Centeno, Jonathan Esteve-Lanao and Diego Moreno-Pérez

The current daily protein recommendation for regular endurance exercisers is between 1.2 and 1.6 ( Thomas et al., 2016 ) or up to 1.8 g·kg −1 ·body mass for trained endurance athletes ( Jager et al., 2017 ). Accordingly, Kato et al. ( 2016 ), using the amino acid oxidation method, suggested an

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Michael J. Ormsbee, Brandon D. Willingham, Tasha Marchant, Teresa L. Binkley, Bonny L. Specker and Matthew D. Vukovich

An acute bout of resistance exercise has been reported to result in increased muscle protein synthesis ( Biolo et al., 1995 , 1997 ; Chesley et al., 1992 ; Phillips & Van Loon, 2011 ). When protein or amino acids are consumed following resistance exercise, protein synthesis is increased to a

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Annemarthe L. Herrema, Marjan J. Westerman, Ellen J.I. van Dongen, Urszula Kudla and Martijn Veltkamp

first issue, a growing body of literature recognizes the critical role of protein supplements in combination with physical activity in the prevention of sarcopenia ( Mann, Yudilevich, & Sobrevia, 2003 ; Rolland, Dupuy, van Kan, Gillette, & Vellas, 2011 ; Volpi, Kobayashi, Sheffield-Moore, Mittendorfer

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Paulo Sugihara Junior, Alex S. Ribeiro, Hellen C.G. Nabuco, Rodrigo R. Fernandes, Crisieli M. Tomeleri, Paolo M. Cunha, Danielle Venturini, Décio S. Barbosa, Brad J. Schoenfeld and Edilson S. Cyrino

it has been recommended as a means to attenuate the deleterious effects of sarcopenia ( American College of Sports Medicine, 2009 ; Garber et al., 2011 ). Furthermore, nutritional interventions in which protein ingestion increases muscle protein synthesis (MPS) beyond that of RT alone, thereby

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Samuel G. Impey, Kelly M. Hammond, Robert Naughton, Carl Langan-Evans, Sam O. Shepherd, Adam P. Sharples, Jessica Cegielski, Kenneth Smith, Stewart Jeromson, David L. Hamilton, Graeme L. Close and James P. Morton

The role of increased dietary protein intake in facilitating skeletal muscle adaptations associated with endurance training is now gaining acceptance ( Moore et al., 2014 ). Indeed, consuming protein before ( Coffey et al., 2011 ), during ( Hulston et al., 2011 ), and/or after ( Rowlands et

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Paul J. Moughan, Malcolm F. Fuller, Kyoung-Sik Han, Arie K. Kies and Warren Miner-Williams

Bioactive peptides either present in foods or released from food proteins during digestion have a wide range of physiological effects, including on gut function. Many of the bioactive peptides characterized to date that influence gut motility, secretion, and absorption are opioid agonists or antagonists. The authors review a body of experimental evidence that demonstrates an effect of peptides from food proteins on endogenous (nondietary) protein flow at the terminal ileum of simple-stomached mammals, including adult humans. At least some dietary peptides (1000-5000 Da) significantly enhance the loss of protein from the small intestine, causing an increased amount of protein to enter the colon. Food-derived peptides appear to either stimulate protein secretion into the gut lumen or inhibit amino acid reabsorption or influence both processes simultaneously. The effect of dietary peptides on small-intestine secretory-protein dynamics is discussed in the context of the major components of gut endogenous protein, sloughed cells, enzymatic secretions, mucin, and bacterial protein.