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Neil Maguire, Paul Chesterton and Cormac Ryan

that a 70-minute PNE session for undergraduate physiotherapy students improved pain neurophysiology knowledge, improved attitudes, and increased the likelihood of delivering appropriate treatment recommendations to patients with chronic pain. Given the prevalence of low back pain in the athletic

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Laureen H. Smith, Devin Laurent, Erica Baumker and Rick L. Petosa

to national rates or clinical recommendations? (2) How do daily PA behaviors compare to the United States daily PA guidelines for adolescents? (3) Are daily PA behaviors related to BMI, BMI%, or body fat percentage? (4) How do sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption behaviors compare to other

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Lubna Abdul Razak, Tara Clinton-McHarg, Jannah Jones, Sze Lin Yoong, Alice Grady, Meghan Finch, Kirsty Seward, Edouard Tursan d’Espaignet, Rimante Ronto, Ben Elton and Luke Wolfenden

about 20 hours in Australia 14 and 33 hours in the United States 12 ; (3) most childcare services have both space for outdoor play and portable equipment to encourage physically active play 15 , 16 ; and (4) educators generally support recommendations to increase physical activity. 17 , 18

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Adilson Marques, João Martins, Hugo Sarmento, Leonardo Rocha and Francisco Carreiro da Costa

Background:

Knowledge is required for people to make health decisions. It can be conjectured that knowledge of physical activity recommended levels can be a step to behavior change. This study examined the knowledge of physical activity guidelines of adolescents who were completing the secondary school.

Methods:

A survey was conducted with 2718 students (1613 girls), aged 16 to 18 years (Mean = 17.2 ± 0.2 years). Gender and age were self-reported and socioeconomic status was calculated based on parental occupation. Students were asked about frequency, duration, and intensity of physical activity to achieve the recommended level. Chi-square was applied to the results.

Results:

16.2% reported that physical activity should be practiced daily. For the duration component of the recommendation, 43.5% identified correctly that the minimum recommended is 60 min/day. The intensity component was correctly answered by 62.7%. Considering all the components of the recommendation, only 3.6% of the students were able to identify correctly the physical activity recommendation, with no differences between genders or among socioeconomic status.

Conclusions:

These results highlight the need for an effective communication strategy for disseminating the message to ensure that young people are aware of, and understand the physical activity guidelines.

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Floris C. Wardenaar, Rianne Dijkhuizen, Ingrid J.M. Ceelen, Emma Jonk, Jeanne H.M. De Vries, Renger F. Witkamp and Marco Mensink

Purpose:

The objective of this study was to investigate whether ultramarathon runners were able to meet nutrition recommendations during a training period and on a competition day.

Methods:

In preparation for a 60 or 120 km ultramarathon covering a varied terrain, male and female ultramarathon runners (n = 68, age 46.5 ± 7.1 y) reported habitual dietary intake during three independent days using a web-based 24-hr recall and questionnaires. The diet was assessed using probability of inadequacy or by qualitative evaluation using reference dietary intakes or sports nutrition recommendations. A small group of 120 km runners (n = 4) was observed continuously during the race. After the race, 60 km runners (n = 41) received a questionnaire to assess dietary intake and gastrointestinal (GI) distress on the race day. Spearman rank correlation coefficients (r) were applied to investigate the association between intake and general GI distress symptoms.

Results:

In men and women, habitual mean carbohydrate (CHO) intake was lower than recommended, as was mean protein intake by women. CHO intake during the race was <60 g/h in 75% of the athletes. A large variation of nutrient and fluid intake was seen. GI distress during the race was reported in 82% of the runners; severe GI distress was low. In general, moderate, mostly negative, correlations with nutrient intake were seen for GI distress.

Conclusions:

Sports nutrition recommendations for the habitual diet were not achieved. During a competition day, a large variation was found in nutrient intake; this may be related to a high incidence of GI distress.

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Mike A. Perko, Ronald D. Williams Jr. and Marion W. Evans

Sports supplements use is reality in the 21st century and the global sports world is enmeshed daily in media coverage and debate. Traditionally much of the focus has been on male athletes but the tide is shifting toward the rapidly evolving culture of the female athlete. Little is known about the use rates, reasons, and effects of sports performance supplements among females. This article examines female athletes and sports supplements with emphasis on historical influence, realities for the female athlete, risks involved in performance enhancement, and future recommendations.

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Joy Griffin and Mary B. Harris

Because of a higher than normal incidence of pathogenic weight-loss techniques and eating disorders in athletes, 274 coaches were surveyed to discover their attitudes, knowledge, personal experiences, and recommendations regarding weight control. Coaches demonstrated relatively negative attitudes toward and limited knowledge about obesity, with a few gender and ethnic differences. They tended to make decisions about the need for weight control on the basis of appearance rather than objective indicators, and they saw more females as needing to lose weight and more males as needing to gain. Although a majority of the coaches had tried to lose weight themselves, some using dangerous weight-control techniques, they did not recommend such techniques to their athletes. Nevertheless, it is possible that their obvious concern about weight may have been interpreted by their athletes as encouragement for using pathogenic weight-loss methods.

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Lenny D. Wiersma

Of growing concern to sport researchers is the practice of youth sport athletes specializing in sport at a young age. Sport specialization is characterized by year-round training in a single sport at the exclusion of other sport or nonsport activities. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the potential benefits of specialized sport at an early age in light of the potential risks associated with specialized participation. Three areas of consideration are discussed, including motor skill acquisition and performance, potential sociological consequences, and psychological concerns related to high-intensity training of young athletes. Finally, recommendations for further research and practical considerations are suggested for deciding the appropriateness of specialized sport in the training and development of youth sport athletes.

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Phillip Ward

foundational because it is a central element of effective teaching in all subject matters ( Brown & Saks, 1986 ). The second practice, devote 50% of the lesson time to creating MVPA , was selected to reflect the Institute of Medicine ( 2013 ) and SHAPE America ( 2015 ) policy recommendations for physical

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Jake Schuster, Dan Howells, Julien Robineau, Anthony Couderc, Alex Natera, Nick Lumley, Tim J. Gabbett and Nick Winkelman

opportunity for higher outputs both on-field and in the gym the following week. These recommendations and dynamics may be more relevant in well-trained groups. Developing athletes may not require deload cycles as often due to natural caution taken when programming for such populations and therefore their