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Steven Nagib and Shelley W. Linens

Clinical Scenario Although headache is the most commonly reported symptom associated with concussion, dizziness comes in at a close second with report rates between 66% and 77%. 1 This statistic is concerning as dizziness may be a predictor of prolonged recovery. 1 Any patient, who has symptoms

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Susan Y. Kwiecien, Malachy P. McHugh, Stuart Goodall, Kirsty M. Hicks, Angus M. Hunter and Glyn Howatson

Cold-water immersion (CWI) is a popular intervention utilized to facilitate recovery and improve function in the days following strenuous exercise. Two comprehensive reviews on CWI indicate some effectiveness at reducing soreness but inconclusive effects on other measures of recovery. 1 , 2 As

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Gethin H. Evans, Jennifer Miller, Sophie Whiteley and Lewis J. James

The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of water and a 50 mmol/L NaCl solution on postexercise rehydration when a standard meal was consumed during rehydration. Eight healthy participants took part in two experimental trials during which they lost 1.5 ± 0.4% of initial body mass via intermittent exercise in the heat. Participants then rehydrated over a 60-min period with water or a 50 mmol/L NaCl solution in a volume equivalent to 150% of their body mass loss during exercise. In addition, a standard meal was ingested during this time which was equivalent to 30% of participants predicted daily energy expenditure. Urine samples were collected before and after exercise and for 3 hr after rehydration. Cumulative urine volume (981 ± 458 ml and 577 ± 345 mL; p = .035) was greater, while percentage fluid retained (50 ± 20% and 70 ± 21%; p = .017) was lower during the water compared with the NaCl trial respectively. A high degree of variability in results was observed with one participant producing 28% more urine and others ranging from 18–83% reduction in urine output during the NaCl trial. The results of this study suggest that after exercise induced dehydration, the ingestion of a 50 mmol/L NaCl solution leads to greater fluid retention compared with water, even when a meal is consumed postexercise. Furthermore, ingestion of plain water may be effective for maintenance of fluid balance when food is consumed in the rehydration period.

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Carolina F. Wilke, Samuel P. Wanner, Weslley H.M. Santos, Eduardo M. Penna, Guilherme P. Ramos, Fabio Y. Nakamura and Rob Duffield

Allowing adequate recovery after training and matches is important to promote positive training adaptations and readiness to perform in athletes. However, understanding such recovery response is difficult, given the multifactorial nature of this process. 1 In this sense, research on the postmatch

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Philippe Richard, Lymperis P. Koziris, Mathieu Charbonneau, Catherine Naulleau, Jonathan Tremblay and François Billaut

to exacerbate processes related to perceived fatigue and recovery, compared with long-track speed skating. 4 Not only does the former discipline imply tighter corners and longer periods of accentuated blood flow restriction, but the multiple races that characterize short-track speed

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Sjors Groot, Lars H.J. van de Westelaken, Dionne A. Noordhof, Koen Levels and Jos J. de Koning

, athletes cannot take absolute rest. Therefore, it would be interesting to study to what extent GE can recover during submaximal exercise. Thus far, no other studies have examined the time course of the recovery of GE after high-intensity exercise. Insight into the time course of the recovery of GE after

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Sabrina Skorski, Jan Schimpchen, Mark Pfeiffer, Alexander Ferrauti, Michael Kellmann and Tim Meyer

Athletes are becoming increasingly exposed to physiological and psychological stressors, strengthening the importance of adequate recovery to minimize the effects of fatigue and to allow them to train and compete optimally. 1 Sauna (SAU) bathing is a form of passive heat therapy characterized by

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Berkiye Kirmizigil, Jeffry Roy Chauchat, Omer Yalciner, Gozde Iyigun, Ender Angin and Gul Baltaci

with DOMS. 3 These symptoms generally appear within the first 24 hours postexercise, 3 , 4 peak 24 to 72 hours postexercise, 1 , 3 , 4 and disappear from 5 to 7 days postexercise. 3 , 4 Recovery techniques may help to expedite the process. 3 There are many causes for the psychological discomfort

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Patrick P.J.M. Schoenmakers, Florentina J. Hettinga and Kate E. Reed

vigorous exercise (work interval) are interspersed with recovery periods, and a complex interplay between the number of intervals, the exercise intensities, and the duration of both the work and recovery intervals determines the workload of an HIIT session. 2 , 3 Based on the duration and exercise

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Theofanis Tzatzakis, Konstantinos Papanikolaou, Dimitrios Draganidis, Panagiotis Tsimeas, Savvas Kritikos, Athanasios Poulios, Vasiliki C. Laschou, Chariklia K. Deli, Athanasios Chatzinikolaou, Alexios Batrakoulis, Georgios Basdekis, Magni Mohr, Peter Krustrup, Athanasios Z. Jamurtas and Ioannis G. Fatouros

during less intense actions. 12 To our knowledge, the amount of time required for full recovery following SEPT has not been investigated. Such information would allow practitioners to determine the time needed to dissipate fatigue, EIMD, and restore performance following this very intense protocol