Body composition in a female road cyclist was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (5 occasions) and anthropometry (10 occasions) at the start of the season (Dec to Mar), during a period of chronic fatigue associated with poor weight management (Jun to Aug), and in the following months of recovery and retraining (Aug to Nov). Dietary manipulation involved a modest reduction in energy availability to 30–40 kcal · kg fat-free mass−1 · d−1 and an increased intake of high-quality protein, particularly after training (20 g). Through the retraining period, total body mass decreased (−2.82 kg), lean mass increased (+0.88 kg), and fat mass decreased (−3.47 kg). Hemoglobin mass increased by 58.7 g (8.4%). Maximal aerobic- and anaerobic-power outputs were returned to within 2% of preseason values. The presented case shows that through a subtle energy restriction associated with increased protein intake and sufficient energy intake during training, fat mass can be reduced with simultaneous increases in lean mass, performance gains, and improved health.
Eric C. Haakonssen, David T. Martin, Louise M. Burke and David G. Jenkins
Ryan J. Hamilton, Carl D. Paton and William G. Hopkins
In a recent study competitive road cyclists experienced substantial gains in sprint and endurance performance when sessions of high-intensity interval training were added to their usual training in the competitive phase of a season. The current study reports the effect of this type of training on performance of 20 distance runners randomized to an experimental or control group for 5 to 7 weeks of training. The experimental group replaced part of their usual competitive-phase training with 10 × 30-minute sessions consisting of 3 sets of explosive single-leg jumps (20 for each leg) alternating with 3 sets of resisted treadmill sprints (5 × 30-second efforts alternating with 30-second recovery). Before and after the training period all runners completed an incremental treadmill test for assessment of lactate threshold and maximum running speed, 2 treadmill runs to exhaustion for prediction of 800- and 1500-m times, and a 5-km outdoor time trial. Relative to the control group, the mean changes (±90% confidence limits) in the experimental group were: maximum running speed, 1.8% (± 1.1%); lactate-threshold speed, 3.5% (±3.4%); predicted 800-m speed, 3.6% (± 1.8%); predicted 1500-m speed, 3.7% (± 3.0%); and 5-km time-trial speed, 1.2% (± 1.1%). We conclude that high-intensity resistance training in the competitive phase is likely to produce beneficial gains in performance for most distance runners.
Megan L. Ross, Brian Stephens, Chris R. Abbiss, David T. Martin, Paul B. Laursen and Louise M. Burke
To observe voluntary fluid and carbohydrate intakes and thermoregulatory characteristics of road cyclists during 2 multiday, multiple-stage races in temperate conditions.
Ten internationally competitive male cyclists competed in 2 stage races (2009 Tour of Gippsland, T1, n = 5; 2010 Tour of Geelong, T2, n = 5) in temperate conditions (13.2–15.8°C; 54–80% relative humidity). Body mass (BM) was recorded immediately before and after each stage. Peak gastrointestinal temperature (TGI peak) was recorded throughout each stage. Cyclists recalled the types and volumes of fluid and food consumed throughout each stage.
Although fluid intake varied according to the race format, there were strong correlations between fluid intake and distance across all formats of racing, in both tours (r = .82, r = .92). Within a stage, the relationship between finishing time and fluid intake was trivial. Mean BM change over a stage was 1.3%, with losses >2% BM occurring on 5 out of 43 measured occasions and the fastest competitors incurring lower BM changes. Most subjects consumed carbohydrate at rates that met the new guidelines (30–60 g/h for 2–3 h, ~90 g/h for >3 h), based on event duration. There were consistent observations of TGI peak >39°C during stages of T1 (67%) and T2 (73%) despite temperate environmental conditions.
This study captured novel effects of highintensity stage racing in temperate environmental conditions. In these conditions, cyclists were generally able to find opportunities to consume fluid and carbohydrate to meet current guidelines. We consistently observed high TGI peak, which merits further investigation.
Phillip Bellinger, Blayne Arnold and Clare Minahan
, and perceptual measure of training-intensity quantification. Sanders et al 6 employed HR, power output, and RPE demarcations to categorize the TID of 15 well-trained road cyclists over a 10-week training period. The time spent in zones 1 to 3 was moderate to very largely different for RPE (44.9%, 29
Paolo Menaspà, Marco Sias, Gene Bates and Antonio La Torre
. Int J Sports Physiol Perform . 2013 ; 8 ( 4 ): 452 – 455 . PubMed doi:10.1123/ijspp.8.4.452 23539668 10.1123/ijspp.8.4.452 6. Abbiss CR , Straker L , Quod MJ , Martin DT , Laursen PB . Examining pacing profiles in elite female road cyclists using exposure variation analysis . Br J
Thomas Haugen, Gøran Paulsen, Stephen Seiler and Øyvind Sandbakk
road cyclists. These values are comparable with those found in elite female middle- and long-distance runners, where both Billat et al 27 and Lacour et al 28 also reported an average of just below 70 mL·kg −1 ·min −1 . However, compared with the comprehensive data now available on V ˙ O 2 max values
Ida A. Heikura, Marc Quod, Nicki Strobel, Roger Palfreeman, Rita Civil and Louise M. Burke
Historically, professional road cyclists have been defined by their lean physiques and high aerobic capacity. 1 Morphological differences exist between different cyclists that usually dictate the main specialty of each cyclist in the racing environment (or vice versa); flat-terrain specialists and
Arthur H. Bossi, Ciaran O’Grady, Richard Ebreo, Louis Passfield and James G. Hopker
://cyclingscience.com/cs/features/fall97/fall97_01.html . Accessed September 29, 1998. 2. Mujika I , Padilla S . Physiological and performance characteristics of male professional road cyclists . Sports Med . 2001 ; 31 ( 7 ): 479 – 487 . PubMed doi:10.2165/00007256-200131070-00003 11428685 10.2165/00007256-200131070-00003 3
Jose A. Rodríguez-Marroyo, Raúl Pernía, José G. Villa and Carl Foster
performance changes in professional cyclists in response to both training adaptation and to acute fatigue. Methods Subjects Eighteen professional road cyclists (mean ± SD, age 24 ± 1 y, body mass 69.5 ± 5.6 kg, height 177.1 ± 5.7 cm, V ˙ O 2 max 78.4 ± 4.9 ml·kg −1 ·min −1 ) belonging to Professional
Theo Ouvrard, Alain Groslambert and Frederic Grappe
doi:10.1097/00005768-199708000-00017 10.1097/00005768-199708000-00017 9268969 14. Abbiss CR , Straker L , Quod MJ , Martin DT , Laursen PB . Examining pacing profiles in elite female road cyclists using exposure variation analysis . Br J Sports Med . 2010 ; 44 ( 6 ): 437 – 442