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Chris Wirszyla

High school physical education programs in South Carolina have undergone a major reform effort which was implemented through extensive staff development called the Physical Education Institute (PEI). How to teach toward student performance indicators became the focus of the in-services. This study identified factors that facilitated or hindered implementing the performance indicators, and examined the extent to which key players from three selected programs of secondary physical education were able to achieve the goals of the reform effort. Data were collected through interviews, document analysis, and videotaping lessons. Results reveal that “lead teachers” facilitated the extent to which programs met the goals of reform. The teaching/coaching role conflict was a main hindrance. Each school and teacher met each of the student performance indicators to varying degrees. Implications include the need for a shared reform, holding teachers and students accountable, and the need for administrators and university faculty to be involved.

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Jorid Hovden

The Norwegian Confederation of Sports, the non-profit umbrella organization for all organized sports in Norway, has gradually accepted women’s demands for equal opportunities and full integration at all levels. The situation for women in sports politics and coaching today is characterized by male dominance as well as high drop-out rates and recruiting problems among women.

The aim of the investigation, as basis for this article, was to give women’s experiences within elected posts and coaching a public voice and elaborate why women hesitate to involve themselves or drop-out after a short period of time. The following questions are outlined and discussed:

- What motivates women to take up elected posts and coaching? - What experiences do women have after holding such posts and roles? - What problems and challenges seem to be difficult to face and handle?

The analytical perspective was inspired by the feminist critique of organizations as gender-neutral arenas, and Bourdieu’s analysis of dominance and power within social fields. The empirical material consisted of questionnaire data and data from a search conference. The sample consisted of women holding elected posts, as well as, female coaches.

Based upon the results women as a group within male domains were not empowered to raise and articulate interests and needs as women. The respondents reported an awareness of barriers, role conflicts and dilemmas, but lacked most often the ability to initiate collective emancipatory changes. The established male-dominated practices were seen as selfevident and natural. Many women chose the strategy of exit as the solution to their situation, because the cost of promoting change outweighed the benefits.

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Emily A. Hall, Dario Gonzalez and Rebecca M. Lopez

MM: role conflict. Benefits of AM: Role congruency. Barriers of AM: Role strain and work-life balance. ATs in TM had significantly greater stress scores, lower salary ranges, worked more hours, and reported more job dissatisfaction than ATs in the MM. Role congruity: 92% of participants were aware of

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Jeffrey A. Graham and Marlene A. Dixon

all influence the amount and severity of the role strain or role conflict he or she is likely to experience ( Greenhaus & Beutell, 1985 ; Kahn et al. , 1964 ). A second characterization of the tension between work and family is focused on the resources a given role demands, and how resource

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K. Andrew R. Richards, Karen Lux Gaudreault, Kelly L. Simonton and Angela Simonton

opportunities for research, and more adept at balancing teaching and research roles. However, as they gained experience in teaching and research, they also began to experience role conflict as they tried to manage both roles simultaneously in light of an increasing interest in research ( Marsh & Hattie, 2002

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Peter Olusoga, Marte Bentzen and Goran Kentta

predictive of burnout in male and female collegiate coaches. Furthermore, Kelley ( 1994 ) and Kelley and Gill ( 1993 ) found that in collegiate coaching, stress appraisals (e.g., perceived stress, role conflict, and ‘coaching issues’) were significantly related to all three dimensions of burnout. However, as

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Fleur E.C.A. van Rens, Erika Borkoles, Damian Farrow and Remco C.J. Polman

. Beauchamp , M.R. , & Bray , S.R. ( 2001 ). Role ambiguity and role conflict within interdependent teams . Small Group Research, 32 ( 2 ), 133 – 157 . doi:10.1177/104649640103200202 10.1177/104649640103200202 Beauchamp , M.R. , Bray , S.R. , Eys , M.A. , & Carron , A.V. ( 2002 ). Role

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Fraser Carson, Julia Walsh, Luana C. Main and Peter Kremer

( Knight et al., 2013 ). A noteworthy issue in control happens when individuals encounter role conflict. Role conflict emerges when individuals have clashing demands and / or expectations ( Dhurup & Dubihlela, 2014 ). For high performance coaches this may be a result of the multiple roles that the coaches

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Christianne M. Eason, Stephanie M. Singe and Kelsey Rynkiewicz

suggested WFG is an outcome of inter-role conflict, the conflict that develops from clashing expectations from separate roles within the same person. Athletic trainers may experience conflict due to opposing responsibilities in the work setting (e.g., meetings, travel, rescheduled practices and games) and

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Jon Welty Peachey, Nico Schulenkorf and Ramon Spaaij

challenges—including hybrid approaches and role conflicts—around sport for social change programs and perspectives (see in this issue, e.g.,  Dixon & Svensson, 2019 ; Raw et al., 2019 ). However, more in-depth research is needed to establish a solid understanding of sport for social change perspectives and