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Naomi Fejgin, Nevat Ephraty and David Ben-Sira

This paper presents an analysis of the nature of physical education teaching and reports a study of work environment factors relating to burnout in a sample of physical education teachers in Israel. Based on teachers’ responses to a questionnaire, a factor analysis of 80 items describing work conditions found 15 factors to explain 57% of the variance in the work environment. In a multiple regression of all variables in the model on burnout, none of the personal or occupational variables entered the equation. However, 3 of 15 factors describing work conditions affected teacher burnout: Low Remuneration (β = .359), Bureaucratic Limitations (β =211), and Role Limitations (β = .204). These factors include some items common to all teachers but also point at some problems related to the unique nature of physical education teaching, such as social isolation, role conflict, lack of diverse activities, and lack of opportunity for self-development.

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Jorid Hovden

The Norwegian Confederation of Sports, the non-profit umbrella organization for all organized sports in Norway, has gradually accepted women’s demands for equal opportunities and full integration at all levels. The situation for women in sports politics and coaching today is characterized by male dominance as well as high drop-out rates and recruiting problems among women.

The aim of the investigation, as basis for this article, was to give women’s experiences within elected posts and coaching a public voice and elaborate why women hesitate to involve themselves or drop-out after a short period of time. The following questions are outlined and discussed:

- What motivates women to take up elected posts and coaching? - What experiences do women have after holding such posts and roles? - What problems and challenges seem to be difficult to face and handle?

The analytical perspective was inspired by the feminist critique of organizations as gender-neutral arenas, and Bourdieu’s analysis of dominance and power within social fields. The empirical material consisted of questionnaire data and data from a search conference. The sample consisted of women holding elected posts, as well as, female coaches.

Based upon the results women as a group within male domains were not empowered to raise and articulate interests and needs as women. The respondents reported an awareness of barriers, role conflicts and dilemmas, but lacked most often the ability to initiate collective emancipatory changes. The established male-dominated practices were seen as selfevident and natural. Many women chose the strategy of exit as the solution to their situation, because the cost of promoting change outweighed the benefits.

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Jeffrey A. Graham and Marlene A. Dixon

all influence the amount and severity of the role strain or role conflict he or she is likely to experience ( Greenhaus & Beutell, 1985 ; Kahn et al. , 1964 ). A second characterization of the tension between work and family is focused on the resources a given role demands, and how resource

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K. Andrew R. Richards, Karen Lux Gaudreault, Kelly L. Simonton and Angela Simonton

opportunities for research, and more adept at balancing teaching and research roles. However, as they gained experience in teaching and research, they also began to experience role conflict as they tried to manage both roles simultaneously in light of an increasing interest in research ( Marsh & Hattie, 2002

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Peter Olusoga, Marte Bentzen and Goran Kentta

predictive of burnout in male and female collegiate coaches. Furthermore, Kelley ( 1994 ) and Kelley and Gill ( 1993 ) found that in collegiate coaching, stress appraisals (e.g., perceived stress, role conflict, and ‘coaching issues’) were significantly related to all three dimensions of burnout. However, as

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Fleur E.C.A. van Rens, Erika Borkoles, Damian Farrow and Remco C.J. Polman

. Beauchamp , M.R. , & Bray , S.R. ( 2001 ). Role ambiguity and role conflict within interdependent teams . Small Group Research, 32 ( 2 ), 133 – 157 . doi:10.1177/104649640103200202 10.1177/104649640103200202 Beauchamp , M.R. , Bray , S.R. , Eys , M.A. , & Carron , A.V. ( 2002 ). Role

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Fraser Carson, Julia Walsh, Luana C. Main and Peter Kremer

( Knight et al., 2013 ). A noteworthy issue in control happens when individuals encounter role conflict. Role conflict emerges when individuals have clashing demands and / or expectations ( Dhurup & Dubihlela, 2014 ). For high performance coaches this may be a result of the multiple roles that the coaches

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Jon Welty Peachey, Nico Schulenkorf and Ramon Spaaij

challenges—including hybrid approaches and role conflicts—around sport for social change programs and perspectives (see in this issue, e.g.,  Dixon & Svensson, 2019 ; Raw et al., 2019 ). However, more in-depth research is needed to establish a solid understanding of sport for social change perspectives and

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Sarah J. Hatteberg

.A. ( 1987 ). Role conflict and identity salience: College athletics and the academic role . The Social Science Journal, 24 ( 4 ), 443 – 455 . doi:10.1016/0362-3319(87)90059-0 10.1016/0362-3319(87)90059-0 Adler , P.A. , & Adler , P. ( 1988 ). Intense loyalty in organizations: A case study of

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K. Andrew R. Richards and Kim C. Graber

, PETE faculty members may experience role conflict ( Lease, 1999 ; McBride, Munday, & Tunnell, 1992 ) as they attempt to reconcile the need to develop effective programs that promote PETE student development and program retention on one hand, while maintaining active research agendas on the other. Some