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Alison Keogh, Barry Smyth, Brian Caulfield, Aonghus Lawlor, Jakim Berndsen and Cailbhe Doherty

a time frame) 1 (2.8) 3 (2.6) Number of sessions per week 1 (2.8) 3 (2.6) Critical velocity 1 (2.8) 2 (1.8) Coefficient of variation of running velocity during the marathon 1 (2.8) 2 (1.8) Difference in VO 2 between baseline and lactate increase 1 (2.8) 2 (1.8) Ectomorphy 1 (2.8) 2 (1.8) Energy

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Nicholas Tam, Ross Tucker, Jordan Santos-Concejero, Danielle Prins and Robert P. Lamberts

Running economy, defined as the oxygen or energy cost of transport, has been found to be an important and reliable predictor of running performance. 1 The value of running economy as a performance predictor arises because both metabolic and biomechanical aspects contribute to it, and by extension

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Max R. Paquette and Daniel A. Melcher

Running race participation has seen an approximate 300% increase in the last 2 decades. 1 Unfortunately, between 7.7 to 17.8 running-related injury incidences per 1000 hours of running are reported in novice and recreational runners. 2 Previous injuries, 3 self-reported rearfoot strike pattern

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Stephanie K. Gaskell and Ricardo J.S. Costa

endurance events, with incidence rates of ≥60% consistently observed in individuals partaking in ultraendurance competitions. This far exceeds incidence rates in shorter endurance running events, such as half-marathon, marathon, and exertional stress <2 hr, with minimal symptoms reported ( Costa et

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Ricardo J.S. Costa, Beat Knechtle, Mark Tarnopolsky and Martin D. Hoffman

Ultramarathon running events and participation numbers have increased progressively over the past three decades ( Deutsche Ultramarathon Vereinigung, 2018 ). Anecdotally, there has been growing interest from both amateur and elite endurance runners looking for new adventurous courses and challenges

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John B. Nezlek, Marzena Cypryańska, Piotr Cypryański, Karolina Chlebosz, Karolina Jenczylik, Joanna Sztachańska and Anna M. Zalewska

There has been a marked increase in recreational running over the past few decades (e.g.,  Breedveld, Scheerder, & Borgers, 2015 ). The popularity of running is likely due (at least in part) to its advantages compared with many forms of exercise: Running has a low entry cost, people can run

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Pantelis T. Nikolaidis, Stefania Di Gangi and Beat Knechtle

Marathon running maintains a high level of popularity. However, more people run a half-marathon than a marathon in the United States. In 2016, a total of 1,900,000 runners finished a half-marathon, which is slightly fewer than the 1,986,600 finishers in 2015 and the record of more than 2

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Lilian Roos, Wolfgang Taube, Carolin Tuch, Klaus Michael Frei and Thomas Wyss

and 27 women) participated in this study, age = 31.3 (9.5) years, height = 1.8 (0.1) m, and weight = 68.3 (10.8) kg. All the athletes were recreational or competitive runners or triathletes with 6.8 (4.8) years of running experience at their current level. The athletes performed on average 4.3 (2

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Christopher Napier, Christopher L. MacLean, Jessica Maurer, Jack E. Taunton and Michael A. Hunt

Running is one of the most popular activities worldwide, with numerous benefits in the prevention of obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, osteoarthritis, respiratory disease, cancer, and disability. 1 Even in low doses, running is associated with a substantial reduction in cardiovascular and

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Alyssa Evans, Gavin Q. Collins, Parker G. Rosquist, Noelle J. Tuttle, Steven J. Morrin, James B. Tracy, A. Jake Merrell, William F. Christensen, David T. Fullwood, Anton E. Bowden and Matthew K. Seeley

, Braun, Schaenzer, 2011 ; Sedlock, Fissinger, Melby, 1989 ). The present work utilized an instrumented athletic shoe with four novel nanocomposite piezoresponsive foam (NCPF) sensors (Figure  1a ) for the purposes of measuring 3D ground reaction forces during walking and running outside of a traditional