-inflammatory medication consumption, as well as physical activity, for 24 hours prior to the sessions and up until the final saliva collection. Subjects completed an activity and dietary questionnaire prior to each trial session to ensure that subjects followed instructions and maintained a consistent schedule and light
Lara A. Carlson, Kaylee M. Pobocik, Michael A. Lawrence, Daniel A. Brazeau and Alexander J. Koch
Pedro Figueiredo, George P. Nassis and João Brito
responses in professional top-level soccer players: effect of training intensity . J Strength Cond Res . 2016 ; 30 : 2460 – 2469 . PubMed ID: 24448005 doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000000380 10.1519/JSC.0000000000000380 24448005 2. Papacosta E , Nassis GP . Saliva as a tool for monitoring steroid, peptide
Mitch D. VanBruggen, Anthony C. Hackney, Robert G. McMurray and Kristin S. Ondrak
The effect of exercise intensity on the tracking of serum and salivary cortisol responses was examined in 12 endurance-trained males (maximal oxygen uptake [VO2max] = 58.2 ± 6.4 mL/kg/min).
Subjects rested for 30 min (control) and exercised on a cycle ergometer for 30 min at 40% (low), 60% (moderate), and 80% (high intensity) of VO2max on separate days. Serum and saliva samples were collected pretrial, immediately posttrial, and 30 min into the recovery period from each trial.
Cortisol responses increased significantly for both serum (40.4%; P = .001) and saliva (170.6%; P = .007) only in response to high-intensity exercise. Peak saliva cortisol occurred at 30 min of recovery, whereas peak serum was at the immediate posttrial sampling time point. The association between serum and saliva cortisol across all trials was examined using concordance correlation (R c) analysis, which accounts for repeated measures. The overall correlation between serum and saliva cortisol levels in all matched samples was significant (R c = 0.728; P = .001). The scatter plot revealed that salivary cortisol responses tracked closely to those of serum at lower concentrations, but not as well at higher concentrations.
Findings suggest salivary measurements of cortisol closely mirror those in the serum and that peak salivary concentrations do not occur until at least 30 min into the recovery from intense exercise.
Judith E. Allgrove, Louise Geneen, Sarah Latif and Michael Gleeson
This study investigated the effect of a fed or fasted state on the salivary immunoglobulin A (s-IgA) response to prolonged cycling. Using a randomized, crossover design, 16 active adults (8 men and 8 women) performed 2 hr of cycling on a stationary ergometer at 65% of maximal oxygen uptake on 1 occasion after an overnight fast (FAST) and on another occasion 2 hr after consuming a 2.2-MJ high-carbohydrate meal (FED). Timed, unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected immediately before ingestion of the meal, immediately preexercise, 5 min before cessation of exercise, immediately postexercise, and 1 hr postexercise. The samples were analyzed for s-IgA concentration, osmolality, and cortisol, and saliva flow rates were determined to calculate s-IgA secretion rate. Saliva flow rate decreased by 50% during exercise (p < .05), and s-IgA concentration increased by 42% (p < .05), but s-IgA secretion rate remained unchanged. There was a 37% reduction in s-IgA:osmolality postexercise (p < .05), and salivary cortisol increased by 68% (p < .05). There was no effect of FED vs. FAST on these salivary responses. The s-IgA concentration, secretion rate, and osmolality were found to be significantly lower in women than in men throughout the exercise protocol (p < .05); however, there was no difference between genders in saliva flow rate, s-IgA:osmolality ratio, or cortisol. These data demonstrate that a fed or fasted state 2 hr before exercise does not influence resting s-IgA or the response to prolonged cycling. Furthermore, these results show lower levels of s-IgA and osmolality in women than in men at rest.
Michael Gleeson, Nicolette C. Bishop, Marta Oliveira and Pedro Tauler
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a probiotic supplement during 4 mo of winter training in men and women engaged in endurance-based physical activities on incidence of upper respiratory-tract infections (URTIs) and immune markers. Eighty-four highly active individuals were randomized to probiotic (n = 42) or placebo (n = 42) groups and, under double-blind procedures, received probiotic (PRO: Lactobacillus casei Shirota [LcS]) or placebo (PLA) daily for 16 wk. Resting blood and saliva samples were collected at baseline and after 8 and 16 wk. Weekly training and illness logs were kept. Fifty-eight subjects completed the study (n = 32 PRO, n = 26 PLA). The proportion of subjects on PLA who experienced 1 or more weeks with URTI symptoms was 36% higher than those on PRO (PLA 0.90, PRO 0.66; p = .021). The number of URTI episodes was significantly higher (p < .01) in the PLA group (2.1 ± 1.2) than in the PRO group (1.2 ± 1.0). Severity and duration of symptoms were not significantly different between treatments. Saliva IgA concentration was higher on PRO than PLA, significant treatment effect F(1, 54) = 5.1, p = .03; this difference was not evident at baseline but was significant after 8 and 16 wk of supplementation. Regular ingestion of LcS appears to be beneficial in reducing the frequency of URTI in an athletic cohort, which may be related to better maintenance of saliva IgA levels during a winter period of training and competition.
Samantha Kirsty Gill, Ana Maria Teixeira, Fatima Rosado, Martin Cox and Ricardo Jose Soares Costa
The study aimed to determine whether high-dose probiotic supplementation containing Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) for 7 consecutive days enhances salivary antimicrobial protein (S-AMP) responses to exertional–heat stress (EHS). Eight endurance-trained male volunteers (age 26 ± 6 years, nude body mass 70.2 ± 8.8 kg, height 1.75 ± 0.05 m, VO2max 59 ± 5 ml·kg-1·min-1 [M ± SD]) completed a blinded randomized and counterbalanced crossover design. Oral supplementation of the probiotic beverage (PRO; L. casei × 1011 colony-forming units·day-1) or placebo (PLA) was consumed for 7 consecutive days before 2 hr running exercise at 60% VO2max in hot ambient conditions (34.0 °C and 32% RH). Body mass and unstimulated saliva and venous blood samples were collected at baseline (7 days before EHS), pre-EHS, post-EHS (1 hr, 2 hr, and 4 hr), and at 24 hr. Saliva samples were analyzed for salivary (S) IgA, α-amylase, lysozyme, and cortisol. Plasma samples were analyzed for plasma osmolality. Body mass and plasma osmolality did not differ between trials. Saliva flow rate remained relatively constant throughout the experimental design in PRO (overall M ± SD = 601 ± 284 μ1/min) and PLA (557 ± 296 μl/min). PRO did not induce significant changes in resting S-AMP responses compared with PLA (p > .05). Increases in S-IgA, S-α-amylase, and S-cortisol responses, but not S-lysozyme responses, were observed after EHS (p < .05). No main effects of trial or Time × Trial interaction were observed for S-AMP and S-cortisol responses. Supplementation of a probiotic beverage containing L. casei for 7 days before EHS does not provide any further oral–respiratory mucosal immune protection, with respect to S-AMP, over PLA.
Christine V. Crooks, Clare R. Wall, Martin L. Cross and Kay J. Rutherfurd-Markwick
Secretory IgA in saliva (s-IgA) is a potential mucosal immune correlate of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) status. Nutritional supplements may improve mucosal immunity, and could be beneficial to athletes who are at increased risk of URTI. In this study, 35 distance runners (15 female, 20 male, age 35 to 58 y) consumed a supplement of either bovine colostrum or placebo for 12 wk. Saliva samples were taken prior to training at baseline, monthly during supplementation, and 2 wk post supplementation. Median levels of s-IgA increased by 79% in the colostrum group after 12 wk intervention, and the time-dependent change from baseline value was significant (P = 0.0291). This significance was still apparent after adjusting for training volume and self-reporting of upper respiratory symptoms. This study has demonstrated increased s-IgA levels among a cohort of athletes following colostrum supplementation. While this result is statistically significant, its physiological interpretation must be viewed with caution due to the small numbers in this study and the large variability in s-IgA levels.
Michael Gleeson, Nicolette C. Bishop, Marta Oliveira, Tracey McCauley, Pedro Tauler and Claire Lawrence
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a probiotic supplement during 4 mo of spring training in men and women engaged in endurance-based physical activities on incidence of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) and mucosal immune markers. Sixty-six highly active individuals were randomized to probiotic (n = 33) or placebo (n = 33) groups and, under double-blind procedures, received probiotic (PRO: Lactobacillus salivarius, 2 × 1010 bacterium colony-forming units) or placebo (PLA) daily for 16 wk. Resting blood and saliva samples were collected at baseline and after 8 and 16 wk. Weekly training and illness logs were kept. Fifty-four subjects completed the study (n = 27 PRO, n = 27 PLA). The proportion of subjects on PRO who experienced 1 or more wk with URTI symptoms was not different from that of those on PLA (PRO .58, PLA .59; p = .947). The number of URTI episodes was similar in the 2 groups (PRO 1.6 ± 0.3, PLA 1.4 ± 0.3; p = .710). Severity and duration of symptoms were not significantly different between treatments. Blood leukocyte, neutrophil, monocyte, and lymphocyte counts; saliva IgA; and lysozyme concentrations did not change over the course of the study and were not different on PRO compared with PLA. Regular ingestion of L. salivarius does not appear to be beneficial in reducing the frequency of URTI in an athletic cohort and does not affect blood leukocyte counts or levels of salivary antimicrobial proteins during a spring period of training and competition.
Susan K. Putnam and Justin M. Carré
The authors examined the extent to which changes in testosterone concentrations before competition would be associated with performance among elite male hockey players. Saliva samples were collected on 2 noncompetition days (baseline) and before 2 playoff games (1 home game, 1 away game). Individual performance was assessed by the coaching staff after each game. Results indicated that changes in testosterone before competition predicted performance, but this effect was influenced by game location. Unexpectedly, the authors found a significant negative relationship between a rise in testosterone and performance for the away game and a nonsignificant positive relationship for the home game. These findings indicate that game location should be considered in studies examining the neuroendocrine correlates of athletic competition.
Lisa Dawn Hamilton, Sari M. van Anders, David N. Cox and Neil V. Watson
The association between androgens and competition in women has been understudied compared with men. The current study examined the link between testosterone (T) and competition in elite female athletes, using a sample of female wrestlers that included athletes competing at both the national and international level. In a repeated-measures design, saliva samples were collected before and after wrestling bouts, with comparable samples of wins and losses, and subsequently analyzed for T. Study results showed a 22% increase in circulating bioavailable T from pre-to postbout, F(1, 12) = 9.71, P = .009. There was no significant difference in T between win or loss outcomes. These findings—showing a link between individual head-to-head competition and T in women—demonstrate that women’s androgenic responses to environmental contexts are dynamic and may be an important factor to address in research on competitive performance.