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Pooja Somasundaram and Alexandra M. Burgess

, mistakes, or imperfections as total failures ( Frost et al., 1990 ). Therefore, researchers have surmised that for individuals high in evaluative concerns, any shortcoming in their ability to achieve their ideal, desired body shape may trigger self-criticism and feelings of failure ( Hewitt et al., 1995

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Robin S. Vealey, Eric Martin, Angela Coppola, Rose Marie Ward and Jacob Chamberlin

inflexible, negative, and self-defeating behaviors (e.g., harsh self-criticism, unrealistic standards and expectations). Similarly, perfectionism becomes harmful when individuals feel they are not measuring up to desired standards ( Appleton, Hall, & Hill, 2009 ). A meta-analysis in sport, work, and

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Megan S. Patterson and Patricia Goodson

, Meyer C . Perfectionism and compulsive exercise among female exercisers: high personal standards or self-criticism? Pers Individ Dif . 2010 ; 49 : 3 – 7 . doi:10.1016/j.paid.2010.02.024 10.1016/j.paid.2010.02.024 80. Taranis L , Meyer C . Associations between specific components of

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Jens Van Lier and Filip Raes

development of depressive symptoms . Journal of Personality, 66 , 607 – 619 . PubMed ID: 9728418 doi:10.1111/1467-6494.00026 10.1111/1467-6494.00026 Carver , C.S. , & Ganellen , R.J. ( 1983 ). Depression and components of self-punitiveness: High standards, self-criticism, and overgeneralization

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Gert-Jan De Muynck, Maarten Vansteenkiste, Jochen Delrue, Nathalie Aelterman, Leen Haerens and Bart Soenens

, 2009 ). Whereas positive self-talk encompasses self-directed statements to generate energy, to give oneself instructions, or to build confidence, negative self-talk involves messages expressing self-criticism, worries, somatic complaints, and thoughts about disengagement. Situational factors, such as