-perceived competence, social interaction skills, disability awareness and attitude, and motivation barriers. These include family activity orientation, social supports, accessibility and reliability of transportation, program costs, and information access ( 24 , 35 ), which were not considered in this study. As
Simona Bar-Haim, Ronit Aviram, Anat Shkedy Rabani, Akram Amro, Ibtisam Nammourah, Muhammed Al-Jarrah, Yoav Raanan, Jack A. Loeppky and Netta Harries
Nicola Brown and Yasmin Bowmer
expenditure, physical exertion, family discouragement) and 29 benefit statements (e.g., ‘Exercise increased my stamina’) categorized into five subscales (life enhancement, physical performance, psychological outlook, social interaction and preventive health). A four-point Likert scale (ranging from 1
Albert V. Carron, Lawrence R. Brawley and W. Neil Widmeyer
Two independent studies were conducted to examine the impact of group size in an exercise setting. In the first, archival data from 47 exercise classes varying in size from 5 to 46 members were used to examine the relationship between group size and behavior. Attention and retention were high in small and large exercise classes and specific social psychologocal correlates of group size including the participants’ perceptions of conspicuousness, quality and quantity of interactions with their leader, their opportunities for social interaction with other members, the level of crowding and density, and satisfaction. Trend analyses showed a curvilinear relationship between exercise class size and participants’ perceptions of the opportunities available for social interaction and feelings of crowding and density. Both the small and large classes were perceived more favorably than the medium classes. The relationships between class size and perceptions of the instructor as well as the level of satisfaction experienced were linear—positive perceptions decreased systematically as class size increased.
Christian von Sikorski and Thomas Schierl
Previous studies have demonstrated that the media, by specifically framing news articles, may systematically affect a nondisabled recipient’s perception of athletes with disabilities (AWDs). However, it remains unclear how specific sports news frames affect a recipient’s quality perception of a journalistic product and if news frames further affect an individual’s postexposure behavior in social interaction with a person with a disability (PWD). To shed some light on these potential news-framing effects, 2 experimental studies (between-subjects designs) were conducted. Study 1 revealed systematic news framing’s effects on recipients’ attitudes toward a depicted AWD and showed effects on a recipient’s perceived quality of a news story. Study 2 further revealed that specific news frames may (automatically) affect a recipient’s behavior (e.g., verbal communication performance, visual attention/ eye contacts) in a subsequent face-to-face social interaction with a PWD. The findings are discussed regarding their implications for the journalistic coverage of disability sports in the media.
Scott R. Swanson, Tom Colwell and Yushan Zhao
Disability sports organizations could benefit from a better understanding of the factors leading individuals with disabilities to participate in sport. This study explored relationships among four sources of motivation (i.e., escape, self-esteem enhancement, self-improvement, and social interaction) and six forms of social support (i.e., emotional challenge, emotional support, listening support, reality confirmation, task appreciation, and task challenge) among 133 male and 60 female wheelchair athletes, ages 13–34 years. Differences in motivation and social support needs were examined according to athletes’ gender, age, playing level, skill level, years of participation, and future playing intentions. Results indicated that males were more motivated than females were by desire for escape and that long-term participants were more motivated than novices were by self-esteem enhancement. Escape, self-improvement, and social interaction were stronger motivators for high school athletes than for collegiate athletes. Importance of social support types differed according to skill level, playing level, years played, and future playing intentions.
Aija Klavina and Martin E. Block
This study assessed the effect of peer tutoring on physical, instructional, and social interaction behaviors between elementary school age students with severe and multiple disabilities (SMD) and peers without disabilities. Additional measures addressed the activity time of students with SMD. The study was conducted in inclusive general physical education settings under three instructional support conditions for students with SMD: (a) teacher-directed, (b) peer-mediated, and (c) voluntary peer support. During peer-mediated and voluntary peer support conditions, the instructional and physical interaction behaviors between students with SMD and their peers increased, while social interactions remained low. The activity engagement time data increased for all target students throughout intervention sessions. Interactions between students with SMD and teachers decreased toward the end of intervention.
Howard L. Nixon II
The purpose of this paper is to focus more attention on the potential value of a structural social network approach for understanding social interaction, relationships, structures, and change in sport. Despite growing interest in this approach in sociology in general, little attention has been paid to it by sport sociologists. Examples of applications to sport are presented concerning the study of pain and injury, small groups and subcultures, organizational relations, coaching burnout and deviance, and managerial recruitment and stacking.
Lauren M. Robins, K.D. Hill, Lesley Day, Lindy Clemson, Caroline Finch and Terry Haines
This paper describes why older adults begin, continue, and discontinue group- and home-based falls prevention exercise and benefits and barriers to participation. Telephone surveys were used to collect data for 394 respondents. Most respondents reported not participating in group- (66%) or home-based (78%) falls prevention exercise recently. Reasons for starting group-based falls prevention exercise include health benefits (23–39%), health professional recommendation (13–19%), and social interaction (4–16%). They discontinued because the program finished (44%) or due to poor health (20%). Commonly reported benefits were social interaction (41–67%) and health (15–31%). Disliking groups was the main barrier (2–14%). Home-based falls prevention exercise was started for rehabilitation (46–63%) or upon health professional recommendation (22–48%) and stopped due to recovery (30%). Improvement in health (18–46%) was the main benefit. These findings could assist health professionals in prescribing group-based falls prevention exercise by considering characteristics of older adults who perceive social interaction to be beneficial.
Martin E. Block and Iva Obrusnikova
The purpose of the review is to critically analyze English-written research articles pertaining to inclusion of students with disabilities in physical education published in professional journals both within and outside of the United States from 1995-2005. Each study included in this review had to meet seven a priori criteria. Findings of the 38 selected studies were divided into six focus areas: (a) support, (b) affects on peers without disabilities, (c) attitudes and intentions of children without disabilities, (d) social interactions, (e) ALT-PE of students with disabilities, and (f) training and attitudes of GPE teachers. Recommendations for future practice and research are embedded throughout the article.
William McTeer and James E. Curtis
This study examines the relationship between physical activity in sport and feelings of well-being, testing alternative interpretations of the relationship between these two variables. It was expected that there would be positive relationships between physical activity on the one hand and physical fitness, feelings of well-being, social interaction in the sport and exercise environment, and socioeconomic status on the other hand. It was also expected that physical fitness, social interaction, and socioeconomic status would be positively related to psychological well-being. Further, it was expected that any positive zero-order relationship of physical activity and well-being would be at least in part a result of the conjoint effects of the other variables. The analyses were conducted separately for the male and female subsamples of a large survey study of Canadian adults. The results, after controls, show a modest positive relationship of physical activity and well-being for males but no such relationship for females. The predicted independent effects of the control factors obtained for both males and females. Interpretations of the results are discussed.