Sprint-cycling performance is paramount to competitive success in over half the world-championship and Olympic races in the sport of cycling. This review examines the current knowledge behind the interaction of propulsive and resistive forces that determine sprint performance. Because of recent innovation in field power-measuring devices, actual data from both elite track- and road-cycling sprint performances provide additional insight into key performance determinants and allow for the construction of complex models of sprint-cycling performance suitable for forward integration. Modeling of various strategic scenarios using a variety of field and laboratory data can highlight the relative value for certain tactically driven choices during competition.
James C. Martin, Christopher J. Davidson and Eric R. Pardyjak
Markus J. Klusemann, David B. Pyne, Will G. Hopkins and Eric J. Drinkwater
Competition-specific conditioning for tournament basketball games is challenging, as the demands of tournament formats are not well characterized.
To compare the physical, physiological, and tactical demands of seasonal and tournament basketball competition and determine the pattern of changes within an international tournament.
Eight elite junior male basketball players (age 17.8 ± 0.2 y, height 1.93 ± 0.07 m, mass 85 ± 3 kg; mean ± SD) were monitored in 6 seasonal games played over 4 mo in an Australian second-division national league and in 7 games of an international under-18 tournament played over 8 days. Movement patterns and tactical elements were coded from video and heart rates recorded by telemetry.
The frequency of running, sprinting, and shuffling movements in seasonal games was higher than in tournament games by 8–15% (99% confidence limits ± ~8%). Within the tournament, jogging and low- to medium-intensity shuffling decreased by 15–20% (± ~14%) over the 7 games, while running, sprinting, and high-intensity shuffling increased 11–81% (± ~25%). There were unclear differences in mean and peak heart rates. The total number of possessions was higher in seasonal than in tournament games by 8% (± 10%).
Coaches should consider a stronger emphasis on strength and power training in their conditioning programs to account for the higher activity of seasonal games. For tournament competition, strategies that build a sufficient aerobic capacity and neuromuscular resilience to maintain high-intensity movements need to be employed. A focus on half-court tactics accounts for the lower number of possessions in tournaments.
Mehdi Kordi, Campbell Menzies and Andy Galbraith
Purpose: The hyperbolic distance–time relationship can be used to profile running performance and establish critical speed (CS) and D′ (the curvature constant of the speed–time relationship). Typically, to establish these parameters, multiple (3+) performance trials are required, which can be highly fatiguing and limit the usability of such protocols in a single training session. This study aimed to compare CS and D′ calculated from a 2-trial (2-point model) and a 3-trial (3-point model) method. Methods: A total of 14 male distance runners completed 3 fixed-distance (3600, 2400, and 1200 m) time trials on a 400-m outdoor running track, separated by 30-min recoveries. Participants completed the protocol 9 times across a 12-mo period, with approximately 42 d between tests. CS and D′ were calculated using all 3 distances (3-point model) and also using the 3600- and 1200-m distances only (2-point model). Results : Mean (SD) CS for both 3-point and 2-point models was 4.94 (0.32) m·s−1, whereas the values for D′ were 123.3 (57.70) and 127.4 (57.34) m for the 3-point and 2-point models, respectively. Overall bias for both CS and D′ between 3-point and 2-point model was classed as trivial. Conclusion: A 2-point time-trial model can be used to calculate CS and D′ as proficiently as a 3-point model, making it a less fatiguing, inexpensive, and applicable method for coaches, practitioners, and athletes for monitoring running performance in 1 training session.
Gordon G. Sleivert
Wireless microtechnologies are rapidly emerging as useful tools for sport scientists to move their work out of the laboratory and into the field. The purpose of this report is to describe some of the practical aspects of using ingestible radiotelemetric temperature sensors in sport physiology. Information is also presented to demonstrate the utility of this technology in understanding individual differences in coping with environmental stress, optimizing heat adaptation, and fine-tuning competition strategy (pacing). Wireless core-temperature technology has already revolutionized field monitoring of elite athletes training and competing in extreme environments. These technologies are valuable tools for sport scientists to better understand the interaction between the physiology of exercise and the environment.
validating or using technology to gain valuable insights into sport physiology and performance. Technology-driven digital solutions may provide knowledge beyond what standard measurements have previously allowed. Positioning systems, inertial movement units, and various sensors that measure physiological
Jos J. de Koning and Dionne A. Noordhof
answers. Life in sport (science) is not easy at all! In 2006, the International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance ( IJSPP ) started to help us with these kinds of questions. As you can read in the mission statement, the journal promotes the publication of research in sport physiology and
Iñigo Mujika and Ritva S. Taipale
providing sport physiology support to elite athletes, including some Olympic and world champions. The only “special” thing about this particular training camp is that a large majority of the athletes I am working with are women: pool swimming, 2 women; open-water swimming, 2 women and 4 men; and water polo
place a substantial focus on the practical applications of our research. At the same time, IJSPP has become one of the leading journals in sport science, and with the new impact factor of 3.384, we are placed at Position 10 in the field of sports medicine. Our applied research, focusing on sport
Florentina J. Hettinga
, monitor, and evaluate their races on a regular basis to build performance templates and improve their performance. The above studies, as well as the many studies published in IJSPP since its founding in 2006, have focused on exploring sport physiology and performance, appreciating a multidisciplinary
regarding her journey and her impactful work on the Triad/RED-S. What was it like finding out about/recognizing the reality of the Triad? When/what were first steps? What was the “political scene” like in sport physiology at the time—accepting of the concept? Historically, it has been literally one step at