From 1950 to 1980, the field of sport psychology made significant strides. The developments were so rapid and so profound that this period can be called the “formative” years of the field. There was a tremendous expansion of the sport psychology literature, some of which constituted sustained contributions on a single research topic. Several textbooks and specialty books were published during this time period. Sport psychology journal articles expanded so much that journals devoted entirely to sport psychology research were created. The first graduate programs and research societies that focused more directly on sport psychology were also established. Applied sport psychology techniques, such as relaxation, imagery, and concentration training, were developed and made available to athletes. In addition to providing a description of the above-mentioned developments, some insights into dominant research methodology trends will be presented for the time periods of 1950 to 1965 and from 1966 to 1980.
Daniel M. Landers
Richard M. Suinn
This article is a brief historical description of events involving the activities in sport psychology associated with the 1984 Olympics. For the first time, systematic services in sport psychology were provided to Winter and Summer Olympic teams, and such services are described. Some illustrations of the athletes' response to these services are also provided. Finally, the article summarizes the opinions of the professionals who provided such services, in terms of recommendations for the future development of sport psychology.
Diane L. Gill
The feminist paradigm has been advocated as an appropriate alternative framework for sport psychology theory and research. The current paper extends the feminist perspective to sport psychology practice, particularly to educational consultation. Application of a feminist perspective to sport psychology practice requires (a) an awareness of relevant gender scholarship and valuing of the female perspective, (b) a shift in focus from the personal to the social, and (c) an egalitarian, process-oriented approach. Applying the feminist perspective implies not only an awareness of relevant sport psychology scholarship but also a commitment to action to educate and empower sport participants.
Matthew P. Martens, Michael Mobley and Samuel J. Zizzi
One of the challenges facing the field of applied sport psychology involves addressing the needs of athletes of various racial/ethnic backgrounds. An important step in facing this challenge is providing sport psychology graduate students with training in multicultural issues. A review of current models of sport psychology graduate training reveals a lack of emphasis on multicultural training. In this article we offer a description of multicultural training. We also provide a rationale for its inclusion in sport psychology programs and present several models and ideas for implementing multicultural training.
W. Jack Rejeski and Lawrence R. Brawley
Sport psychology has experienced substantial growth in the past decade. Despite many positive developments, however, a nagging question remains. Specifically, what are the boundaries of sport psychology? In this paper, an organizational model is provided as one way of defining sport psychology and related domains of inquiry: exercise psychology, health psychology, and rehabilitation psychology. The process of defining boundaries for sport psychology goes far beyond simple semantics. Failure to reflect and work toward resolution of this issue will continue to restrict the direction and breadth of research, jeopardize appropriate training of graduate students, and maintain definitional ambiguity in the public sector.
John Partington and Terry Orlick
An evaluation inventory was developed to help sport psychology consultants assess and improve the field services they provide. Consultant characteristics included in the inventory were based on extensive interviews with Olympic athletes and coaches. The inventory was administered to 104 Canadian Olympic athletes who assessed 26 sport psychology consultants. Data from this survey were used to determine the validity and reliability of the Sport Psychology Consultant Evaluation Form (CEF). Practical suggestions are provided for enhancing the quality of sport psychology consultation services through the use of the CEF.
Rory J. Mack, Jeff D. Breckon, Paul D. O’Halloran and Joanne Butt
dialogue about their problem and therefore the potential for a CB intervention” ( Leahy, 2006 , p. 137). Nevertheless, published sport psychology interventions appear to place more emphasis on content than on the processes of relationship building and their delivery ( Longstaff & Gervis, 2016 ), and there
Daniel Gould and Sean Pick
This review examines the development of sport psychology in the years 1920 to 1940, with particular emphasis on Coleman Griffith. Griffith was the most active person in the field in this era and was the first North American to devote a significant portion of his or her career to research, teaching, and service in sport psychology. The approach Griffith took in conceptualizing and studying sport psychology will also be emphasized. In essence, the most lasting legacy of Griffith is the research to practice orientation he epitomized that provides an excellent model for contemporary sport psychologists to emulate.
Mark B. Andersen, Judy L. Van Raalte and Britton W. Brewer
To assess the supervisory skills of sport psychologists who are training future practitioners, the Sport Psychology Supervisory Skills Inventory (SPSSI) was mailed to 201 potential applied sport psychology supervisors. Supervisors were associated with graduate programs that offered applied sport psychology practica and/or internships, as identified in the Directory of Graduate Programs in Applied Sport Psychology (Sachs, Burke, & Salitsky, 1992). Supervisors rated themselves on 41 supervisory skills. The SPSSI was also mailed to 416 student members of AAASP, who were asked to rate their supervisors. There was a 35% return rate from supervisors and a 45% return rate from students. The findings suggest that supervised experience with athletes is limited for both supervisors and graduate students.
John M. Silva III
The application and professionalization of sport psychology has attracted increased attention from various sources including colleagues in the field, sport science and psychology departments, collegiate, Olympic, and professional sport organizations, and the media. Unfortunately, the attention generated has not resulted in significant organizational progress on issues crucial to the integrity of a developing specialization such as sport psychology. These crucial professional issues include the orderly growth of the field, requirements for the establishment of a recognized profession in sport psychology, the training of future sport psychologists, and the process and procedures required to develop and implement the certification of sport psychologists. The present paper was written to address these critical issues, identify progressive steps currently being taken, and recommend subsequent actions that can advance the field toward the professionalization of sport psychology without compromising the integrity of the academic subdiscipline.