This article examines from a theoretical perspective the most pertinent issues related to providing sport psychology consulting to athletes of color. A review of multicultural concepts including identity, acculturation/enculturation, generalizations, and stereotyping is presented. These concepts provide a framework within which to address issues and examples pertinent to African American, Latino, Asian American, and American Indian athletes. A multicultural sport psychology approach incorporating worldview and integrative theory is examined. Finally, future issues in multicultural sport psychology including changes in the population, female athletes of color, and the need for sport psychologists of color are discussed.
Anthony P. Kontos and Alfiee M. Breland-Noble
Craig A. Wrisberg, Duncan Simpson, Lauren A. Loberg, Jenny L. Withycombe and Ann Reed
In the current study NCAA Division I student-athletes (n = 2,440) completed a Web-based survey assessing their willingness to seek mental skills training, perceptions of the potential benefits of mental training for their team, and support of possible roles for a sport psychology consultant at their institution. Multiple chi-square tests revealed significant (p < .001) dependence of respondents’ ratings on gender, sport type (individual vs. team), prior experience with a sport psychology consultant, and perceived effectiveness of prior experience (low, moderate, high). Generally, females were more receptive than males, individual and team sport athletes were interested in different types of mental skills, athletes with prior consulting experience were more open than those with none, and athletes with highly effective prior experience were more receptive than those with less effective experience. These findings extend previous research examining collegiate student-athletes’ attitudes toward sport psychology consulting and provide several important insights for consultants conducting mental skills training for NCAA Division I level athletes.
Artur Poczwardowski and Clay P. Sherman
Sport psychology service delivery (SPSD) heuristic (Poczwardowski, Sherman, & Henschen, 1998) included key components of applied work. Nevertheless, the complexities of sport psychology consulting need an even broader representation. In individual, semistructured interviews, 10 experienced sport psychology consultants explored the usefulness of the original heuristic and newly added elements in their professional practice. Inductive analysis (Lincoln & Guba, 1985) resulted in a total of 2409 meaning units that were grouped into 127 lower-order themes and 32 higher-order themes that were used to clarify, expand, and revise the SPSD model as interpreted by the participants. Based on the new elements (i.e., consultant-client relationship, the consultant variables, the client variables, immersion, and the goodness of fit) and two meta-themes (i.e., interrelation and person-focused values), a newly configured heuristic is proposed (SPSD-Revised). Future researchers will benefit from different research methods and diversified conceptualizations of sport psychology service delivery to account for professional practice variables in various contexts.
Jeffery P. Simons and Mark B. Andersen
The history and development of applied sport psychology practice has not received the same attention and documentation as that of academic sport psychology. After a brief introduction to the literature on the history and professional development of applied sport psychology, some personal perspectives from consultants who have been practicing “in the field” over the last two to four decades are provided. Eleven well-known practitioners discuss how they got started, how their consulting has developed, what significant experiences they have had, and what lessons they have learned along the way. They relate their views on the progression of professional practice and what the future may hold. Finally, they offer some encouragement, cautions, and words of wisdom for fellow and future colleagues in sport psychology consulting.
Amanda J. Visek, Brandonn S. Harris and Lindsey C. Blom
While there are significant benefits to be gleaned from the delivery of sport psychology services to youth athletes, there does not appear to be a sport psychology consulting model that adequately addresses the unique needs and organizational structure of a youth sport population. The authors have both integrated and extended the current paucity of literature in an attempt to provide sport psychology practitioners with an inclusive youth sport consulting model. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to introduce the Youth Sport Consulting Model (YSCM) which serves as an educational framework for guiding and supporting sport psychology practitioners in the implementation and delivery of sport psychology services for young athletes and their sport organizations.
Acting as a liaison between a university’s counseling and psychological services and intercollegiate athletics department is an emerging alternative career path in professional psychology. This article details how a psychologist-sport psychologist liaison role can provide both psychological counseling and sport psychology consulting in a university setting. In addition, the author outlines the mission and goals of such a position, the departments within which this work is carried out, how psychology and applied sport psychology services are conceptualized and integrated, and the responsibilities and service duties of a counseling psychologist and sport psychologist to university student-athletes, coaches, and staff. It is hoped that illustrating this relationship between university counseling and psychological services and athletic departments will demonstrate how campus resources can be employed to assist student-athletes with performance enhancement, personal enrichment, and life skills development. In addition, the author offers examples of ways that athletic coaching, administration, and program development can be enhanced through cultivation of positive relationships between university counseling and psychological services, and intercollegiate athletic departments.
Stephen Pack, Monna Arvinen-Barrow, Stacy Winter and Brian Hemmings
.1037/0735-7028.18.4.360 Saroglou , V. , & Scariot , C. ( 2002 ). Humor Styles Questionnaire: Personality and educational correlates in Belgian high school and college students . European Journal of Personality, 16, 43 – 54 . doi: 10.1002/per.430 Sharp , L.-A. , & Hodge , K. ( 2011 ). Sport psychology consulting
Urban Johnson and Mark Andersen
coaches. Martin ( 2005 ) also found that male and younger athletes in physical-contact sports (such as soccer) seemed to view seeking sport psychology consulting as stigmatizing (see also Zakrajsek, Martin, & Zizzi, 2011 ). One might speculate that these service-delivery problems could be related to the
Vellapandian Ponnusamy, Michelle Guerrero and Jeffrey J. Martin
observations of White, male athletes, to inform their practices and approaches with all athletes, without considering athletes’ cultural backgrounds. Rather than using a blanket-fashion approach to sport psychology consulting, scholars have noted that effective implementation of PST requires a flexible
William C. Way, Ashley M. Coker-Cranney and Jack C. Watson II
on the remaining 20% of the sample; Tabachnick & Fidell, 2013 ). In step one of each model, access to campus mental health services, access to sport psychology consulting, access to clinical sport psychology, service use on campus, and service use within athletics were entered. Step two added access