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Denise Jennings, Stuart Cormack, Aaron J. Coutts, Luke Boyd and Robert J. Aughey

Purpose:

To assess the validity and reliability of distance data measured by global positioning system (GPS) units sampling at 1 and 5 Hz during movement patterns common to team sports.

Methods:

Twenty elite Australian Football players each wearing two GPS devices (MinimaxX, Catapult, Australia) completed straight line movements (10, 20, 40 m) at various speeds (walk, jog, stride, sprint), changes of direction (COD) courses of two different frequencies (gradual and tight), and a team sport running simulation circuit. Position and speed data were collected by the GPS devices at 1 and 5 Hz. Distance validity was assessed using the standard error of the estimate (±90% confidence intervals [CI]). Reliability was estimated using typical error (TE) ± 90% CI (expressed as coefficient of variation [CV]).

Results:

Measurement accuracy decreased as speed of locomotion increased in both straight line and the COD courses. Difference between criterion and GPS measured distance ranged from 9.0% to 32.4%. A higher sampling rate improved validity regardless of distance and locomotion in the straight line, COD and simulated running circuit trials. The reliability improved as distance traveled increased but decreased as speed increased. Total distance over the simulated running circuit exhibited the lowest variation (CV 3.6%) while sprinting over 10 m demonstrated the highest (CV 77.2% at 1 Hz).

Conclusion:

Current GPS systems maybe limited for assessment of short, high speed straight line running and efforts involving change of direction. An increased sample rate improves validity and reliability of GPS devices.

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Haresh T. Suppiah, Chee Yong Low and Michael Chia

Purpose:

Adolescent student-athletes face time constraints due to athletic and scholastic commitments, resulting in habitually shortened nocturnal sleep durations. However, there is a dearth of research on the effects of sleep debt on student-athlete performance. The study aimed to (i) examine the habitual sleep patterns (actigraphy) of high-level student-athletes during a week of training and academic activities, (ii) ascertain the effects of habitual sleep durations experienced by high-level student-athletes on psychomotor performance, and (iii) examine the impact of sport training intensities on the sleep patterns of high-level student-athletes that participate in low and high intensity sports.

Methods:

Sleep patterns of 29 high-level student-athletes (14.7 ± 1.3 yrs) were monitored over 7 days. A psychomotor vigilance task was administered on weekdays to ascertain the effects of habitual sleep durations.

Results:

Weekend total sleep time was longer than weekdays along with a delay in bedtime, and waketimes. Psychomotor vigilance reaction times on Monday were faster than on Thursday and Friday, with reaction times on Tuesday also faster than on Friday. False starts and lapses were greater on Friday compared with Monday.

Conclusion:

There was a negative impact of sleep debt on student-athletes’ psychomotor performance.

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Christopher A. DiCesare, Adam W. Kiefer, Scott Bonnette and Gregory D. Myer

on a set of standard, noncontextual tasks, these assessments may not accurately represent movement patterns (and thereby, injury risk) exhibited during actual sport competition and may be limited in their generalizability to sport-specific performance. Therefore, it may be more effective to examine

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Erik A. Wikstrom, Cole Mueller and Mary Spencer Cain

authors (C.M. and E.A.W.) independently reviewed the included papers and extracted the relevant data when possible. Extracted data included the background/credentials of the authorship team; a definition of RTS; domains (eg, range of motion, balance, sport-specific movement, etc) that recommended to be

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Lana M. Pfaff and Michael E. Cinelli

than noncontact sport athletes while running ( Higuchi et al., 2011 ). However, there were no differences in shoulder rotations between the American football and rugby athletes. Both sports require athletes to run and fit between spaces, which suggest their sport-specific training has impacted their

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Nathan A. Reis, Kent C. Kowalski, Amber D. Mosewich and Leah J. Ferguson

experience and minimize attrition rates. One construct that has been associated with easing sport-specific setbacks and challenges is self-compassion, which is a warm and accepting way of treating oneself in the face of difficult experiences ( Neff, 2003a , 2003b ). Comprised of self-kindness, common

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Brad Donohue, Yulia Gavrilova, Marina Galante, Elena Gavrilova, Travis Loughran, Jesse Scott, Graig Chow, Christopher P. Plant and Daniel N. Allen

considered when developing sport-specific mental health interventions ( Breslin et al., 2017 ). Along these lines, there is a need to empirically adapt evidence-based mental health interventions to be tailored to athletes and inclusive of significant others ( Donohue, Pitts, Gavrilova, Ayarza, & Cintron

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Joanne Perry, Ashley Hansen, Michael Ross, Taylor Montgomery and Jeremiah Weinstock

, physical stressor, and sport-specific stressor), and (2) explore the potential clinical utility and research applications of an athlete-specific adaptation of this stress assessment protocol. Stress Assessment Protocol This study adapted the Stress Assessment Protocol outlined in Khazan ( 2013 ) in order

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Haresh T. Suppiah, Chee Yong Low, Gabriel Choong and Michael Chia

of a brief afternoon nap on shooting, sprint, and cognitive performance among high-level adolescent student-athletes. The objective of these studies was to ascertain if an acute short nap can elicit sport-specific performance changes after a night of sleep restriction. Methods Subjects: Study 1 In

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Stefanie Hüttermann, Paul R. Ford, A. Mark Williams, Matyas Varga and Nicholas J. Smeeton

participation. In this study, we developed a method that can be used to determine visual attentional and perceptual capabilities while performing a sport-specific decision-making task. The need to make quick and accurate decisions is integral to expert performance, particularly in team sports (e.g.,  Raab, 2003