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Felecia Theune

Despite the tremendous growth in female sports participation opportunities under Title IX, black females have not benefited to the same degree as their white female counterparts. While gender complaints about female athletes still lagging behind males in participatory opportunities, scholarships, facilities and equipment are being discussed, larger structural inequities associated with being black and female remain absent from the Title IX conversation, demonstrating the dual invisibility of black females. Not only is this true at predominantly white institutions, it’s also true at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), academic institutions which have been sources of educational and athletic opportunities for black females long before the passage of Title IX prohibited sex discrimination in any federally funded educational programs and activities.

Malgré l’importante croissance d’opportunités de participation en sport féminin grâce à Title IX, les femmes noires n’ont pas bénéficié autant que les femmes blanches. Alors que les plaintes au sujet des femmes athlètes étaient encore à la traîne des hommes en ce qui concerne les opportunités de participation, les bourses, les installations et l’équipement font l’objet de discussions, les plus grandes injustices structurales associées au fait d’être noire et d’être une femme demeurent absentes de la conversation au sujet de Title IX, démontrant la double invisibilité des femmes noires. Non seulement estce vrai dans les établissements à prédominance blanche, cela est également vrai dans les collèges et universités historiquement noirs, des établissements scolaires qui ont été des sources d’opportunités éducationnelles et athlétiques bien avant que Title IX ne vienne interdire la discrimination en fonction du sexe dans tous les programmes et activités éducationnels financés par le gouvernement fédéral.

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Shara Crookston

’ lack of participation in physical activity that range from concerns about appearance during an activity to a lack of self-esteem that inhibits sports participation ( Belcher et al., 2010 ; Dinkel et al., 2017 ; Troiano et al., 2008 ). Additionally, structural inequality limits access to activities

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Rachel Allison

released reports concluded that sports participation had prepared these women for their occupational positions. Nearly all (94%) had played sport; just over half of those holding top-ranked positions had played in college. Three-fourths of women surveyed said that sport can “help to accelerate a woman

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John A.W. Baker, Xiang-Jun Cao, David Wei Pan and Weili Lin

The effectiveness of the centralized sport system in China has been demonstrated by the achievements of athletes in international competition and the extent of mass sports participation; however, the efficiency of the system has been questioned. A government survey determined that administrators within the system came from diverse backgrounds with little or no training in sport, physical education, or management techniques. This situation is being remedied through workshops for existing administrators and 4-year degree programs for future administrators. This study provides information regarding the different perspectives of sport administration in China, the structure of the workshops and degree programs, and efforts being made to ensure that an already effective system becomes more efficient. All data were obtained from prime source materials and from surveys conducted by one of the authors.

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Daniel Gould

The mission of the Institute for the Study of Youth Sports (ISYS) is to provide leadership, scholarship, and outreach that “transforms” the face of youth sports in ways that maximize the beneficial physical, psychological, and social effects of participation for children and youth while minimizing detrimental effects. Since its inception in 1978, ISYS has partnered with numerous organizations to promote healthy youth sports participation. In this article, the general steps ISYS takes to form and facilitate partnerships are addressed. Four long-term partnerships are also described. The services provided to these organizations are described and the advantages and challenges of working with partners, in general, are delineated. How these partnerships are used to facilitate the teaching, outreach-engagement, and scholarship components of the Michigan State University land grant mission are also described. The case of ISYS shows that conducting community outreach and engagement projects greatly enhance the scholarly mission of the university.

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Susan Lagaert, Mieke Van Houtte and Henk Roose

considered a male-dominated domain and gender-typed as belonging to masculine sphere ( Messner, 2011 ; Smith & Leaper, 2005 ). Because of its competitive (and sometimes violent) nature, not only sports participation but also sports fandom and sport spectatorship—the focus of this contribution—have a

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Lin Yu, Hanhan Xue and Joshua I. Newman

of building Shanghai as a first-tier sports city in Asia: We would facilitate the construction of “First-tier Sports City in Asia” in different stages. From 2000 to 2005, local sports participation rates should reach over 45%; a basic sports-for-all service and security system should be established

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Kim Toffoletti, Catherine Palmer and Sumaya Samie

(Hayhurst, Sundstrom, & Arksey) and increasing female empowerment (Oxford & McLachlan; Seal & Sherry) on a global scale through sports participation; addressing discrimination experienced by trans, intersex and gender non-conforming people (Henne & Pape); improving women’s health outcomes through physical

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Jan Haut, Freya Gassmann, Eike Emrich, Tim Meyer and Christian Pierdzioch

demonstration effect of elite events on sports participation does not develop automatically. Rather, events only increase the attention to sports, and active leveraging strategies are needed in order to increase sports activities of the population ( Chalip, Green, Taks, & Misener, 2016 ; Weed et al., 2015

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Kari Roethlisberger, Vista Beasley, Jeffrey Martin, Brigid Byrd, Krista Munroe-Chandler and Irene Muir

represents the aspiration to continue sports participation ( Scanlan, Carpenter, Simons, Schmidt, & Keeler, 1993 ). Sport enjoyment is the positive affective response to the sport experience that reflects generalized feelings such as fun, liking, and pleasure. Though some predictors of sport commitment and