The process of teachers making pedagogical change in varying contexts is commonly referred to as teacher change ( Guskey, 2014 ). Pedagogical change is defined as alterations in “instructional resources, teaching approaches, and beliefs about pedagogy theory” ( Fullan, 2007 , p. 30). Teacher change
Ben D. Kern, Kim C. Graber, Amelia Mays Woods and Tom Templin
Nina Verma, Robert C. Eklund, Calum A. Arthur, Timothy C. Howle and Ann-Marie Gibson
; Howle, Jackson, Conroy, & Dimmock, 2015 ), which we propose may be shaped by school-based physical education (PE) teachers’ use of transformational teaching behavior ( Beauchamp et al., 2010 ). A recent review has highlighted the potential effectiveness of school-based interventions underpinned by
Shirley Gray, Paul M. Wright, Richard Sievwright and Stuart Robertson
, 2011 ; Taylor, Oberle, Durlak, & Weissberg, 2017 ). It is in the interest of all teachers and their learners therefore to develop knowledge and strategies that might nurture and promote social and emotional learning in schools, and specifically in PE ( Jacobs & Wright, 2014 ). Teaching personal and
Janice C. Wendt and Linda L. Bain
Physical educators’ perceptions of stressful teaching events do not change over a period of 1 to 5 years of teaching experience. Although there was a trend for priority and teaching function perceptions to be rated lower, no significant differences were found when using a MANOVA. Notification of unsatisfactory performance and being involuntarily transferred were rated the most stressful by both groups. Rated least stressful by both student and novice teachers was attendance at inservice meetings.
Margarite A. Arrighi and Judith C. Young
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the perceptions of preservice and inservice teachers about successful and effective teaching. Two samples of preservice and inservice teachers responded to open-ended questions concerning their perceptions of teaching effectiveness and their own success. The first sample included 224 beginning physical education majors, student teachers, and inservice physical educators who identified 2,003 effective teaching components which were categorized into 20 different instructional factors by the research team. The second sample included 379 inservice and preservice teachers who were asked about their perceptions of successful teaching. Responses were then categorized by source of success: students, self, others’ reactions, or administrative. Results indicated differences in preservice and inservice teachers’ perceptions, suggesting a pattern of socialization into the teacher role. Teacher perceptions of effective and successful teaching reflected concern for student responses. Effectiveness categories identified included teaching strategy, management and organization, content, and personal characteristics. Perception of successful teaching indicated greater concern for self among preservice than inservice teachers.
Richard I. Tinning
Student teaching as a significant part of the professional development of physical education teachers is implicated in the general failure of teacher education to adequately prepare teachers who can envision a world of schooling that is any different from the present one. This paper argues that the dominant pedagogy of student teaching is inherently conservative, is characterized by technical rationality, and embraces an outmoded view of professional knowledge. The adoption of a critical-inquiry perspective in student teaching is offered as a possible alternative.
The aim of this study was to explore preservice classroom teacher reflection in a physical education teaching and learning environment and to describe how the teachers’ reflections related to their practices. Two preservice classroom teachers voluntarily participated in the study. Data were collected using observations, journals, documents, and interviews and were analyzed inductively (Patton, 1990). Four major themes emerged from the data: (a) the role of reflection, (b) reflection in action and reflection on action, (c) agency for changes in teaching, and (d) nature and focus of reflection. Findings suggested that the two participants considered reflection a necessity in teaching. Student progress and learning was the most powerful agency for changes to the participants’ practices. Results also indicated that the participants’ reflections related to pedagogical, content, and social issues of teaching, as well as pedagogical content knowledge, and that the nature of their reflection was mostly positive across the lessons.
Louis Harrison, Russell L. Carson and Joe Burden
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the common assumption that teachers of color (TOC) are more culturally competent than White teachers by assessing physical education teachers’ cultural competency. A secondary purpose was to ascertain the possible differences in cultural competence levels of White teachers in diverse school settings versus those in more racially homogenous schools. One hundred and ninety physical education teachers from two states in the southeastern U.S. completed a demographic questionnaire and the Multicultural Teaching Competency Scale (MTCS) (Spanierman et al., 2006). The MTCS consists of two subscales; multicultural teaching knowledge (MTK), and multicultural teaching skills (MTS). MANCOVA analyses indicated significant differences with TOC scoring higher in both MTK and MTS than White teachers. Results also indicated that White teachers in city school settings scored significantly higher in MTK than those from more rural school. Results and implications for teacher preparation and professional development are discussed.
Terry L. Rizzo and Walter P. Vispoel
This study was conducted to determine the influence of two physical education courses on undergraduate physical educators’ attitudes toward teaching students labeled educable mentally retarded, behavioral disordered, and learning disabled. The two courses, Adapted Physical Education and Physical Education for Children, included 77 and 97 students, respectively. Four strategies for attitudinal change (information, contact, persuasion, and vicarious experience) were emphasized in the former course. Participants in both courses completed the Physical Educators’ Attitude Toward Teaching the Handicapped Questionnaire (PEATH–II) during the first and last days of a 16-week semester. The data were analyzed using a split-plot hierarchical ANOVA design with two between-subjects factors, course type and teacher (nested under course type), and two within-subjects factors, time (pretest and posttest) and handicapping label. Results indicated that attitudes toward teaching students with handicaps improved significantly in the adapted physical education course but not in the other course.
Nate McCaughtry, Kimberly L. Oliver, Suzanna Rocco Dillon and Jeffrey J. Martin
We used cognitive developmental theory to examine teachers’ perspectives on the use of pedometers in physical education. Twenty-six elementary physical education teachers participating in long-term professional development were observed and interviewed twice over 6 months as they learned to incorporate pedometers into their teaching. Data were analyzed via constant comparison. The teachers reported four significant shifts in their thinking and values regarding pedometers. First, at the beginning, the teachers predicted they would encounter few implementation challenges that they would not be able to overcome, but, after prolonged use, they voiced several limitations to implementing pedometers in physical education. Second, they anticipated that pedometers would motivate primarily higher skilled students, but found that lesser skilled students connected with them more. Third, they moved from thinking they could use pedometers to teach almost any content to explaining four areas of content that pedometers are best suited to assist in teaching. Last, they shifted from seeing pedometers as potential accountability tools for student learning and their teaching to identifying key limitations to using pedometers for assessment. Our discussion centers on connecting these findings to teacher learning and professional development, and on the implications for teacher educators and professional development specialists advocating pedometers in physical education.