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Lindley McDavid, Meghan H. McDonough, Bonnie T. Blankenship and James M. LeBreton

Out-of-school programs that are designed to foster the current and future well-being of young people often adopt a positive youth development (PYD) philosophy ( Damon, 2004 ). The PYD perspective is derived from developmental systems theory ( Ford & Lerner, 1992 ), which states that all people have

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Anna Stodter and Christopher J. Cushion

learning theories and their application’ alongside ‘a rich set of critiqued experiences within the domain of operation’, allowing them to ‘develop and monitor relevant learning environments, tasks and communication strategies to meet learning goals’ ( Abraham et al., 2013 , p. 179). Despite necessary

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Elizabeth A. Taylor, Jessica L. Siegele, Allison B. Smith and Robin Hardin

these positions of leadership using career construction theory (CCT) as a theoretical framework. Career Construction Theory CCT focuses on exploring what individuals do and why they do it from an interpretive framework: How do individuals construct, process, and negotiate meaning ( Savickas, 2005 )? CCT

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David A. Dzewaltowski, John M. Noble and Jeff M. Shaw

Social cognitive theory and the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior were examined in the prediction of 4 weeks of physical activity participation. The theories of reasoned action and planned behavior were supported. Attitude and perceived control predicted intention, and intention predicted physical activity participation. The social cognitive theory variables significantly predicted physical activity participation, with self-efficacy and self-evaluation of the behavior significantly contributing to the prediction. The greater the confidence in participating in physical activity and the greater the satisfaction with present physical activity, the more physical activity performed. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that perceived control and intentions did not account for any unique variation in physical activity participation over self-efficacy. Therefore the social cognitive theory constructs were better predictors of physical activity than those from the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior.

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Richard J. Butler and Lew Hardy

The importance of discovering the athlete’s perspective of his or her own notions of self and performance is discussed with reference to Personal Construct Theory (Bannister & Fransella, 1986; Kelly, 1955). The athlete’s constructions are displayed in the form of performance profiles and the methodology of developing such profiles is described. The application of performance profiles is illustrated with a number of examples from elite athletes over a range of Olympic sports.

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Earl Smith and Angela Hattery

There have been many discussions about diversity and the value that it brings to the workplace (Ely & Thomas, 2001). Although sport has been deemed a model of diversity, where people of different races and ethnicities comingle as participants and spectators, there is a serious disconnect between perceptions of this diversity and the reality that defines the lack of racial diversity in the management (i.e., coaching and leadership) of sport. The purpose of this essay is to provide an exploration and analysis of the varied ways in which race may influence sport management experiences and opportunities. We frame this analysis through race relation theory, symbolic racism theory, social distance theory, and the concepts of segregation and power. The inferences and implications of our essay are centered on the undercurrent of the status of African American men in sport leadership, who are severely under-represented despite their prominent contribution to the financial vitality of the sport industry as players. The essay concludes with several policies and practices for improving racial diversity in sport management.

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Emily M. Hartley, Matthew C. Hoch and Robert J. Cramer

; however, this has not been thoroughly investigated. Utilizing behavioral and social science theories which have been used to examine determinants of other forms of health prevention may elucidate why individuals are failing to participate in ERIPPs. There is very limited research examining behavioral and

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Eduardo Bellomo, Andrew Cooke and James Hardy

-based explanation for choking under pressure is offered by reinvestment theory ( Masters & Maxwell, 2008 ). It contends that contingencies such as increased psychological pressure, social evaluation, and errors during execution may prompt, in some individuals, explicit action monitoring by reinvestment of the

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Grace Goc-Karp and Dorothy B. Zakrajsek

This study determined and compared the planning models taught in preservice physical education (theoretical) with those practiced in junior high school physical education (reality). Empirical and ethnographic data were collected through a survey of college professors (n = 59), close-ended (n = 36) and open-ended surveys of teachers (n = 28), and a nonparticipant observation study (n = 4). The results indicated that the theoretical model focused on planning for student learning whereas the reality model focused on planning for teaching. The personal philosophy of the teachers, coaching commitments, the teachers’ routines of planning and teaching, and the students’ reactions were major influences on how teachers planned and why they planned. Reasons for lack of transfer of the planning model from theory into practice are discussed and suggestions for further investigation are made.

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Ronald E. McCarville and Robert P. Copeland

Public, not-for-profit, and private sector sport groups are increasingly exploring innovative means of generating funds. Sponsorship represents one promising revenue alternative. This paper uses exchange theory to discuss and describe sport sponsorship and offer propositions. These propositions are based generally on the principles of exchange and often reflect current practice. As such they offer some insight to those hoping to initiate and maintain sponsorship agreements. All have yet to be empirically verified within the context of sport sponsorship, however, so they may also be used to guide research efforts. They suggest that partners choose sponsorship opportunities that offer the most valued rewards with the greatest probability of success. It is suggested that past successes may dictate future sponsorship decisions. Further, multiple-reward options may be most successful in encouraging subsequent contributions. Although this discussion takes place in the context of sport sponsorship, both the theoretical perspective and propositions are relevant to a broad spectrum of sponsorship settings.