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Scott Tainsky and Mateusz Jasielec

This study uses consumer-theory modeling in exploring the broadcasts of games not featuring a local team. Our general linear mixed model controls for the variation in consumption attributable to traditionally employed determinants of demand and highlights factors related to home team loyalty. The study concludes that while traditional shifters are likewise useful in estimating demand for out-of-market games, fan allegiance to their local team plays a central role in the viewership of all games, even those in which the local team is not explicitly involved. The observation of compositional inheritance effects underscores the significance of local identification in league-wide interest, a phenomenon of growing importance with the ever-increasing availability of out-of-market games.

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April J. Chambers, Alison L. Sukits, Jean L. McCrory and Rakié Cham

Age, obesity, and gender can have a significant impact on the anthropometrics of adults aged 65 and older. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in body segment parameters derived using two methods: (1) a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) subject-specific method (Chambers et al., 2010) and (2) traditional regression models (de Leva, 1996). The impact of aging, gender, and obesity on the potential differences between these methods was examined. Eighty-three healthy older adults were recruited for participation. Participants underwent a whole-body DXA scan (Hologic QDR 1000/W). Mass, length, center of mass, and radius of gyration were determined for each segment. In addition, traditional regressions were used to estimate these parameters (de Leva, 1996). A mixed linear regression model was performed (α = 0.05). Method type was significant in every variable of interest except forearm segment mass. The obesity and gender differences that we observed translate into differences associated with using traditional regressions to predict anthropometric variables in an aging population. Our data point to a need to consider age, obesity, and gender when utilizing anthropometric data sets and to develop regression models that accurately predict body segment parameters in the geriatric population, considering gender and obesity.

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Rebecca J. Guthrie, Terry L. Grindstaff, Theodore Croy, Christopher D. Ingersoll and Susan A. Saliba

Context:

Individuals with low back pain (LBP) are thought to benefit from interventions that improve motor control of the lumbopelvic region. It is unknown if therapeutic exercise can acutely facilitate activation of lateral abdominal musculature.

Objective:

To investigate the ability of 2 types of bridging-exercise progressions to facilitate lateral abdominal muscles during an abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM) in individuals with LBP.

Design:

Randomized control trial.

Setting:

University research laboratory.

Participants:

51 adults (mean ± SD age 23.1 ± 6.0 y, height 173.6 ± 10.5 cm, mass 74.7 ± 14.5 kg, and 64.7% female) with LBP. All participants met 3 of 4 criteria for stabilization-classification LBP or at least 6 best-fit criteria for stabilization classification.

Interventions:

Participants were randomly assigned to either traditional-bridge progression or suspension-exercise-bridge progression, each with 4 levels of progressive difficulty. They performed 5 repetitions at each level and were progressed based on specific criteria.

Main Outcome Measures:

Muscle thickness of the external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and transversus abdominis (TrA) was measured during an ADIM using ultrasound imaging preintervention and postintervention. A contraction ratio (contracted thickness:resting thickness) of the EO, IO, and TrA was used to quantify changes in muscle thickness.

Results:

There was not a significant increase in EO (F 1,47 = 0.44, P = .51) or IO (F 1,47 = .30, P = .59) contraction ratios after the exercise progression. There was a significant (F 1,47 = 4.05, P = .05) group-by-time interaction wherein the traditional-bridge progression (pre = 1.55 ± 0.22; post = 1.65 ± 0.21) resulted in greater (P = .03) TrA contraction ratio after exercise than the suspension-exercise-bridge progression (pre = 1.61 ± 0.31; post = 1.58 ± 0.28).

Conclusion:

A single exercise progression did not acutely improve muscle thickness of the EO and IO. The magnitude of change in TrA muscle thickness after the traditional-bridging progression was less than the minimal detectable change, thus not clinically significant.

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Coyte G. Cooper

Upon being hired as an assistant wrestling coach at a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I program, you have learned that your head coach has given you the task of spearheading the marketing efforts for the upcoming season. With little knowledge in this area, you have decided to apply to the National Wrestling Coaches Association (NWCA) Leadership Academy in August at their annual convention. After being accepted, you have learned that a primary emphasis of the academy is providing coaches with the skill sets necessary to be the CEO of their program. As you attend the different sessions at the academy, there are a variety of different traditional and new media marketing initiatives that are presented as potential strategies to grow programs at the local level. With a goal of increasing attendance and social media followers, you are now presented with the challenge of developing a plan to better market the program moving forward.

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Lindsey M. Eliopulos and Jay Johnson

The purpose of this article is to examine the sport–celebrity relationship of singer–actress Jessica Simpson and Dallas Cowboys quarterback Tony Romo. This qualitative analysis of 100 magazine and 100 newspaper articles that coincided with the first publicized notion of the “Jessica [Simpson] Jinx” reveals the prevailing dominant ideologies of patriarchal structures, traditional gender roles, hegemonic masculinity, and deviance. This study uncovers typologies that mirror the archetypal sporting partnership, for example, Simpson’s feminine position as a “supporter” and her function as an “antagonist” (e.g., the femme fatale, Yoko Ono) and Romo’s position as a hegemonic male (the new-laddist, maverick sporting star) and victim. Through developing these themes, the researchers illustrate the concepts of villainization and victimization in the mass media, where Simpson was portrayed unfavorably. Romo, conversely, was portrayed favorably in the press, suggesting the need to maintain the patriarchal order while restraining female dominance.

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Silvia Aranda-García, Albert Iricibar, Antoni Planas, Joan A. Prat-Subirana and Rosa M. Angulo-Barroso

This study evaluates the separate effect and retention of 12-week traditional (TE) and horse (HE) exercise programs on physical function in healthy older participants (61 to 87 years old). Thirty-eight participants were randomly assigned to three groups: TE (n = 17), HE (n = 10), and control group (n = 11). TE and HE underwent a supervised exercise program (3 day/week). Maximal gait speed, muscle strength, and body balance were assessed at weeks 0, 12, and 16. Only TE and HE displayed significant improvements (P < .05) in knee extensor strength, and only HE had faster gait speed. Marginal balance improvements were found only in HE in the medial-lateral direction. However, TE showed larger improvements in handgrip than HE. The largest retention was in knee extensor strength but most of the exercise effects were lost in the follow-up. Besides TE, exercise with a horse may be an alternative option to older adults, provided that they want to interact with the animal.

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Kristi A. Allain

The sport of curling, traditionally associated with older adults, beer bellies, cigarette smoking, and sociability, has entered an age where dominant discourses promote a strict diet, little alcohol, no smoking, and constant physical activity as a means of “aging well” in the sport. In light of

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Samantha F. Ehrlich, Amanda J. Casteel, Scott E. Crouter, Paul R. Hibbing, Monique M. Hedderson, Susan D. Brown, Maren Galarce, Dawn P. Coe, David R. Bassett and Assiamira Ferrara

on selecting a wear-time estimation method for use with wrist-worn devices. To the best of our knowledge, no published study has compared various wear-time estimation methods to traditional diary logs for wrist-worn devices in regard to wear-time and the corresponding amounts of time spent in

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Scott Cheatham, Morey J. Kolber and Michael P. Ernst

Context:

Pulse oximetry has become mobile with the use of smartphone and Bluetooth wireless technology. This technology offers many benefits but has not been extensively studied. There is a need to further validate its clinimetric properties for health professionals to provide proper guidance to patients.

Objective:

This investigation assessed the concurrent validity of the iSpO2 pulse oximeter against a traditional pulse oximeter in measuring short-term resting blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) and pulse rate.

Design:

Observational study of reliability.

Setting:

University kinesiology laboratory.

Participants:

Thirty healthy, recre-ationally active adults (18 men, 12 women; mean age = 25.7 ± 5.46 years, mean height = 170.3cm ± 9.51, mean body mass = 76.4 kg ± 19.33).

Intervention:

Resting measurement of SpO2 and pulse rate using the iSpO2 pulse oximeter with the iPad Mini and a traditional pulse oximeter with Bluetooth.

Main Outcome Measure:

Resting SpO2 and pulse rate were concurrently measured over 5 min.

Results:

The concurrent validity between the iSpO2 and traditional pulse oximeter was moderate for measuring SpO2, intraclass correlation coeffcient (ICC)(3, 1) = .73, SEM = 0.70%, and good for pulse rate, ICC(3, 1) = .97, SEM = 1.74 beats per minute (bpm). The minimal detectable change at the 95% confidence interval for both instruments suggests that there may be 1.94% disagreement for SpO2 and 4.82 bpm disagreement between pulse oximetry methods. The 95% limits of agreement (LoA) for measuring SpO2 suggests that the iSpO2 and traditional pulse oximeters may vary -0.28 ± 1.98%, or approximately 2%. The 95% LoA for measuring pulse rate suggests that the iSpO2 and traditional pulse oximeter may vary 1.74 ± 4.98 bpm, potentially upward of 6 bpm. On the basis of the results of the LoA, it appears that there may be a slight systematic bias between the two devices, with the traditional pulse oximeter producing higher pulse rates than the iSpO2.

Conclusion:

The findings suggest that both instruments may be beneficial for indirect short-term measurements of resting SpO2 and pulse rate.

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Joseph L. Arbena