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Jinger S. Gottschall, Dmitri Y. Okorokov, Noriaki Okita and Keith A. Stern

Healthy young adults transition between level and hill surfaces of various angles while walking at fluctuating speeds. These surface transitions have the potential to decrease dynamic balance in both the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions. Hence, the purpose of the current study was to analyze modifications in temporal-spatial parameters during hill walking transitions. We hypothesized that in comparison with level walking, the transition strides would indicate the adoption of a distinct gait strategy with a greater base of support. Thirty-four participants completed level and hill trials on a walkway with a 15-degree portable ramp apparatus. We collected data during 4 transition strides between level and ramp surfaces. In support of our hypothesis, compared with level walking, the base of support was 20% greater during 3 out of the 4 transition strides. In short, our results illustrate that healthy young adults did adopt a distinct gait strategy different from both level and hill walking during transitions strides.

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Byron J. Kemp, Anne-Maree Parrish, Marijka Batterham and Dylan P. Cliff

transition from childhood to adolescence was inconclusive. 13 In addition to targeting specific domains of PA, interventions may also deliver targeted strategies to particular segments of youth based on sociodemographic characteristics. 17 Due to the relationship between PA participation and health, 1 the

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Deborah L. Krueger, Patrick DiRocco and Manny Felix

The purpose was to ascertain what obstacles adapted physical education (APE) specialists in Wisconsin had encountered while developing physical activity leisure transition plans (LTP) in accordance with the PL 105-17 mandate on transition services. Also addressed were the reasons why some APE specialists had not written LTPs or been involved in transition planning. Participants included 155 APE specialists representing 91 school districts in Wisconsin who returned a mailed questionnaire (i.e., a 75% return rate). Results indicated that only 21% (n = 33) of the APE specialists had written a LTP. Sixty-four percent (n = 78) of the specialists who reported not having written a LTP said that they had never been asked to be part of transition planning. APE specialists who had written LTPs indicated that transportation, social isolation, and budget restrictions were the greatest barriers.

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Alan K. Bourke, Espen A. F. Ihlen and Jorunn L. Helbostad

measurement. It provides a measure of time spent walking, standing, and sitting/lying, sit-to-stand and stand-to-walk transitions, and number of strides taken. Validation of the first-generation device, the activPAL, has been performed ( Aminian & Hinckson, 2012 ; Godfrey, Culhane, & Lyons, 2007 ); however

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Riley C. Sheehan and Jinger S. Gottschall

In a previous study, we found that participants modified how they transitioned onto and off of ramp configurations depending upon the incline. While the transition strategies were originally attributed to ramp angles, it is possible that the plateau influenced the strategies since the final surface height also differed. Ultimately, for the current study, we hypothesized that an individual’s transition strategies would have significant main effects for ramp angle, but not plateau height. Twelve healthy, young adults transitioned onto 3 distinct ramp configurations, a 2.4-m ramp angled at 12.5° ending at a plateau height of 53 cm, a 1.2-m ramp angled at 23.5° ending at a plateau height of 53 cm, and a 2.4-m ramp angled at 23.5° ending at a plateau height of 99.5 cm. Kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activity were measured during the stance phase before contacting the ramp. In support of our hypothesis, impact peak, active peak, and all of the muscle activity variables had a significant main effect for ramp angle, with greater vertical force peaks and muscle activity on steeper ramp transitions. These findings support our previous interpretation that individuals use estimations of ramp angle, not plateau height, to determine their transition strategies.

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Siobhain McArdle, Phil Moore and Deirdre Lyons

Career pathways in high performance sport include a number of emotionally resonant transitions. Sport systems must be able to effectively support the athlete’s endeavors to negotiate such challenges. This study investigated qualitatively the experiences of Olympic athletes who took part in a three-tier, post-games career transition support program. The aim of the program was to increase athletes’ coping resources to successful negotiate the post-Olympic period. Ten athletes who participated in the program were recruited to participate in semi structured individual interviews. Directed content analysis was employed to identify key themes in the data. Athletes perceived two components of the program as particularly helpful, the normalization of the emotional and psychological challenge of the post Games period and the use of problem focused coping to redirect athlete focus to the future. The findings from this study provide a preliminary framework for the planning of future post-Games career transition support programs.

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Li Li

Variability has long been used as an indication of stability in the application of a dynamical systems approach to human motion (i.e., greater variability has been related to a less stable system and vise versa). This paper incorporates the probability of gait transition during walking and running at a certain speed to represent the stability of human locomotion. The mathematical representation concerning the probability of gait transition change with locomotory speed was derived for increasing walking speed and decreasing running speed. Additionally, the influence of acceleration and deceleration on the stability landscapes of walking and running was discussed based on experimental data. The influence of acceleration was also used to explain the different trends of hysteresis observed by various researchers. Walk-to-run transition speed was greater than run-to-walk transition speed, with a greater magnitude of acceleration, while the trend was reversed with a lesser acceleration magnitude. The quantitative measure of the relationship between variability and stability needs to be explored in the future.

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Michael F. Joseph, Katherine Histen, Julia Arntsen, Lauren L’Hereux, Carmine Defeo, Derek Lockwood, Todd Scheer and Craig R. Denegar


Achilles tendons (ATs) adapt to increased loading generated by long-term adoption of a minimalist shoe running style. There may be difference in the chronology and extent of adaptation between the sexes.


To learn the chronology of AT adaptations in female and male runners who transitioned to a minimalist running style through a planned, progressive 12-wk transition program.


Prospective cohort study of well-trained, traditionally shod runners who transitioned to minimalist shoe running.


Repeated laboratory assessment at baseline and 3, 12, and 24 wk after initiating transition program.


Fifteen women and 7 men (of 29 enrolled) completed the study.

Main Outcome Measures:

The authors used diagnostic ultrasound and isokinetic dynamometry to generate a force elongation curve and its derivatives at each time point.


Greater adaptations were observed in men than in women, with men generating more force and having greater increases in CSA, stiffness, and Young’s modulus and less elongation after 12 wk of training.


Men demonstrated changes in AT properties that were consistent with increased loading of the triceps surae during exercise. The women demonstrated far smaller changes. Further investigation is warranted to understand when adaptations may occur in women and the implications of altered AT mechanical properties for performance and injury risk.

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Aysha M. Thomas, Kayleigh M. Beaudry, Kimbereley L. Gammage, Panagiota Klentrou and Andrea R. Josse

ACtivity (DEDIPAC)” group demonstrated that, in young adults, the life event of transitioning to university was consistently determined to be a main negative predictor of PA and exercise behaviors. 3 The American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II, 4 conducted in Ontario

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Monna Arvinen-Barrow, Kelsey DeGrave, Stephen Pack and Brian Hemmings

The process of transitioning out of sport can be a significant time in an athlete’s life ( Alfermann, 2000 ), and many factors will not only contribute to the reasons why an athlete transitions out of sport (e.g.,  Stambulova, 2003 ; Taylor & Ogilvie, 1994 ), but also how they cope with such