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Rebecca A. Zakrajsek and Sam J. Zizzi

This study examined: (1) coaches’ attitudes and readiness to use sport psychology (SP) services immediately following a SP workshop; and (2) the impact of an educational intervention on coaches’ attitudes and usage patterns during a one-month follow-up. Ninety swim coaches participated in the SP workshop and a total of 53 swim coaches completed the one-month follow-up. The majority of the sample coached at the high school or age group level. Data provided some evidence for the impact of a SP workshop on stage of change, with approximately 13% of coaches moving from precontemplation to contemplation. Two-way mixed ANOVAs did not reveal significant interactions (group × time) and main effects for time found that coaches’ personal openness, behavioral control, self-efficacy, and intentions increased while perceived barriers decreased immediately post-workshop. Furthermore, changes in coaches’ perceived barriers, behavioral control, and self-efficacy were maintained at the one-month follow-up while personal openness and intentions returned close to baseline. Lastly, no differences were found between the stage-matched and control group with regard to behavioral SP usage patterns (e.g., contacting a SP consultant, seeking out more information about SP). However, approximately 40% of coaches accessed the website during the four-week follow-up. The appropriateness of the transtheoretical model of behavior change applied to SP service use with coaches will be discussed.

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Ilca M.S. Diniz, Maria de Fátima S. Duarte, Karen G. Peres, Elusa S.A. de Oliveira and Angélia Berndt


The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an educational intervention on active commuting by bicycle.


An intervention study with workers from a metallurgical industry in Santa Catarina state, Brazil was carried out in 2011. A total of 464 individuals were placed in the intervention group (IG) and 468 in the control group (CG). The intervention consisted of strategies based on the transtheoretical model and stages of behavior change. The intervention group took part in activities for 6 months, including 23 meetings. The statistical analysis included intergroup comparison (IG × CG) at baseline and after the intervention. Intragroup analysis was performed 6 months after the intervention. Student’s t-test, chi-square, and McNemar tests were used to analyze the data.


Of the original total, 876 individuals (94%) participated in the study. The proportion of participants that used bicycles to commute to work (IG) increased significantly from baseline (45.3%) to the final interventional period (47.5%). No difference was found between the CG and the IG group after the interventional period.


We suggest taking these findings into consideration in further studies to understand better the role of educational intervention on active commuting by bicycle.

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Jeff David Breckon, Lynne Halley Johnston and Andrew Hutchison


Physical activity (PA) counseling is becoming commonplace in primary care settings, although there is a high degree of variation in the quality and quantity of this intervention. The purpose of this review was to examine the theory on which the intervention is based and the level of treatment fidelity applied at all stages of the intervention.


A systematic review was carried out for interventions that reported an element of PA counseling. Results were mapped according to a treatment fidelity framework of intervention design, training, delivery, receipt, and enactment.


Most studies were underpinned by the transtheoretical model. Few studies described the frequency or duration of PA counseling training or competence level of the interventionist. The most common outcome measures were behavioral and physiological, with few studies including a cognitive outcome measure.


Most research focuses on outcome and significance rather than intervention processes, with limited consideration of treatment fidelity. The design, training, delivery, and receipt of PA counseling should be reported more thoroughly.

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Ashleigh J. Sowle, Sarah L. Francis, Jennifer A. Margrett, Mack C. Shelley and Warren D. Franke

service for an underserved audience (i.e., rural-residing OA). Table 1 LIFE Program Overview Program Component Activities Whole Person Wellness Model Component Transtheoretical Model Stage(s) Onsite Program • 30-60 min of physical activity a twice weekly using Xbox Kinect ™ exergaming technology using

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Mariana Luciano de Almeida, Francine Golghetto Casemiro, Camila Tiome Baba, Diana Monteiro, Mariana Fornazieri, Natália Cerri, Daniele Frascá Martins Fernandes and Grace Angélica de Oliveira Gomes

factors corroborate with the psychological theories of behavioral change, which talk about the complexity and multifactorial characteristic of an active lifestyle. 23 , 24 The transtheoretical model has been employed to understand a subject’s readiness for change in health risk behaviors. 23 According to

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Hannah Dorling, Jieg Blervacq and Yori Gidron

, United Kingdom. Measures Background Information This included participants’ gender, age, and their stage of exercise adoption, using the Stages of Exercise Adoption Scale. 28 This scale follows the transtheoretical model of health behavior change. 29 It uses a ladder where participants indicate the

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Claudia Meyer, Sophie Hill, Keith D. Hill and Briony Dow

strategy for discussions, yet again, there is no related literature in the area of falls prevention. The Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change (TTM) has potential in the discussion, and adoption of, falls prevention strategies, adapting strategies to the relevant stage of change (precontemplation

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Rodney P. Joseph, Kathryn E. Royse and Tanya J. Benitez

theoretical background, whereas 3 studies 26 , 27 , 29 identified both Social Cognitive Theory and Transtheoretical Model. One study 28 referenced the stages of change model, which is considered a construct of Transtheoretical Model, and 1 study 25 referenced both Health Belief Model and Information

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Kim Gammage, Rachel Arnold, Lori Dithurbide, Alison Ede, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin and Kathleen Wilson

comparing a telephone counseling physical activity intervention with contact control. The 12-week intervention phase was grounded in the transtheoretical model and social cognitive theory to promote self-efficacy and to exercise self-regulation (e.g., goal setting, scheduling, overcoming barriers) based on

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Samuel D. Muir, Sandun S.M. Silva, Mulu A. Woldegiorgis, Hayley Rider, Denny Meyer and Madawa W. Jayawardana

-related quality of life Harding et al 38 Greater mental health-related quality of life Harding et al 38 Attitudinal variables  Motivation (general) Greater internal motivation McCarty and Scheuer 40  Busy work schedule Less busy McCarty and Scheuer 40  Transtheoretical model More advanced stage of change Ablah et