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David V.B. James, Linda J. Reynolds and Sara Maldonado-Martin


Heart rate variability (HRV) has been promoted as a noninvasive method of evaluating autonomic influence on cardiac rhythm. Although female subjects predominate in the walking studies, no study to date has examined the influence of the duration of a moderate intensity walking physical activity bout on HRV in this population.


Twelve healthy physically active middle-aged women undertook 2 conditions; 20min (W20) and 60min (W60) bouts of walking on a treadmill. Resting HRV measures were obtained before (−1 h), and 1 h and 24 h after the walking bouts.


Mean NN interval (ie, normal-to-normal intervals between adjacent QRS complexes) was significantly lower (P = .017) at +1 h in W60 (832, 686−979ms) compared with W20 (889, 732−1046ms). A borderline main effect for time was observed for both the SDNN intervals in W60 (P = .056), and for low frequency (LFabs) power in W60 (P = .047), with post hoc tests revealing a significant increase between −1 h (51, 33−69 ms and 847, 461−1556 ms2) and +1 h (65, 34−97ms and 1316, 569−3042 ms2) for SDNN and LFabs power, respectively, but no increase at +24h compared with −1 h.


It appears that a walking bout of 60 min duration does alter cardiac autonomic influence in healthy active women, and this alteration is not evident after 20 min of walking. Given the rather subtle effect, further studies with larger sample sizes are required to explore the nature of the changes in cardiac autonomic influence following a prolonged bout of walking.

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Elizabeth J. Protas and Sandrine Tissier

The purpose of this study was to pilot test a function-focused exercise intervention consisting of strength and gait-speed training in elders with reduced walking speed, decreased walking endurance, and functional impairment. Twelve participants, 77.2 years old (± 7.34), whose usual gait speed was <0.85 m/s, with walking endurance of <305 m in 5 min, and who were functionally impaired participated in a moderate-intensity exercise intervention. The training occurred 3 times per week, 75 min per session, for 3 months and combined 4 weeks of gait-speed training, walking exercise, and functional strengthening. The participants demonstrated mean usual gait speeds (≥1.0 m/s), endurance (≥350 m), and functional ability (≥10 score on performance battery) that were within normal limits after 12 weeks of training. Fastest gait speed (≥1.5 m/s) and muscle strength also improved significantly. Improvements were maintained during follow-up testing after 3–6 months. In summary, a 12-week intervention for frail, mobility-disabled participants led to improvements in walking, function, and strength.

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John M. Schuna Jr., Daniel S. Hsia, Catrine Tudor-Locke and Neil M. Johannsen

in replacing typical workplace sedentary behavior with opportunities to accumulate low-intensity nonexercise physical activity using workstation alternatives. 12 Several examples of workstation alternatives include sit-to-stand desks, treadmill desks, and pedal desks. The latter 2 modalities

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Yoav Gimmon, Hisham Rashad, Ilan Kurz, Meir Plotnik, Raziel Riemer, Ronen Debi, Amir Shapiro and Itshak Melzer

between the aging groups and young participants. We used a dynamic approach where the gait velocity is controlled by treadmill across different walking speeds ( Barak Wagenaar, & Holt, 2006 ; Wagenaar & Beek, 1992 ), comparing age-related differences in gait asymmetry (GA) and phase coordination index

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David B. Creel, Leslie M. Schuh, Robert L. Newton Jr, Joseph J. Stote and Brenda M. Cacucci

have primarily used 6-minute walk tests. 1 – 3 This type of testing is appealing because it requires little equipment, and improvements can easily be communicated to patients. From an empirical perspective, graded exercise testing holds advantages over 6-minute walk tests. During graded treadmill

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Elroy J. Aguiar, Zachary R. Gould, Scott W. Ducharme, Chris C. Moore, Aston K. McCullough and Catrine Tudor-Locke

promoted as a simple and practical method for gauging intensity in the free-living setting. 8 , 9 We previously described the calibration of cadence–intensity thresholds (ie, cadence values associated with increasing levels of intensity in a sample of young adults [age 21–40 y] during treadmill walking

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Leanna M. Ross, Jacob L. Barber, Alexander C. McLain, R. Glenn Weaver, Xuemei Sui, Steven N. Blair and Mark A. Sarzynski

examination was a complete preventive medical evaluation, including physical examination, personal and family health history, questionnaires (demographics and health habits), anthropometry, resting electrocardiography, blood chemistry analyses, BP, and a maximal exercise treadmill test. Health history

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Kleverton Krinski, Daniel G. S. Machado, Luciana S. Lirani, Sergio G. DaSilva, Eduardo C. Costa, Sarah J. Hardcastle and Hassan M. Elsangedy

experiment, participants were informed that the real purpose was to compare physiological and psychological responses to exercise on a treadmill and outdoors. Volunteers ( n  = 110) were assessed for eligibility, where 38 women met the inclusion criteria and participated in the study (Table  1 ). Inclusion

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Mustafa M.O. Elhadi, Christina Z. Ma, Duo W.C. Wong, Anson H.P. Wan and Winson C.C. Lee

walked on a treadmill without holding the handrails with self-selected speeds for two consecutive walking sessions of 30 min. The self-selected walking speed was achieved by allowing the subjects to change the speed of the treadmill according to their perceived level of comfort. They could stop the

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Merrill D. Funk, Cindy L. Salazar, Miriam Martinez, Jesus Gonzalez, Perla Leyva, David Bassett Jr. and Murat Karabulut

accelerometer during various daily activities in a laboratory setting (treadmill walking/jogging, indoor cycling, sweeping, watching television, etc.) and during seven days of performing normal daily activities in a free-living setting. GPS-enabled smartphones have also been examined for accuracy at measuring