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Cal Stone and Maury L. Hull

This paper provides measurements of rider-induced loads during standing cycling. Two strain gauge dynamometers were used to measure these loads while three subjects rode bicycles on a large motorized treadmill; the cycling situation simulated hill climbing while standing. Comparing the results to those previously published for seated cycling revealed that the loading for standing cycling differed fundamentally from that for seated cycling in certain key respects. One respect was that the maximum magnitude normal pedal force reached substantially higher values, exceeding the weight of the subject, and the phase occurred later in the crank cycle. Another respect was that the direction of the handlebar forces alternated indicating that the arms pulled up and back during the power stroke of the corresponding leg and pushed down and forward during the upstroke. Inasmuch as these forces were coordinated (i.e., in phase) with the leaning of the bicycle, the arms developed positive power.

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Martine Hoofwijk, Viswanath Unnithan and Oded Bar-Or

Nine children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) and 9 controls (mean age 13.5 and 14.0, respectively) completed a maximal walking test on the treadmill. Initial gradient was set at 0% with a speed increase every 2 minutes until the “fastest walking speed” was achieved in the third stage. The gradient was then increased by 2.5–5% every 2 minutes. V̇O2max of the CP children was significantly lower (p = .001) than that of the controls (32.7 vs. 45.2 ml · kg1 · min−1). There was no significant difference in maximal heart rate between the two groups (189 vs. 197). However, the CP subjects had significantly higher (p = .007) ventilatory equivalent for O2 compared to the controls (41.4 vs. 33.6). The lower V̇O2max values of the CP children might reflect inefficient ventilation, compromised circulation, and local fatigue in the spastic limb muscles.

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Daniel Arvidsson, Mark Fitch, Mark L. Hudes and Sharon E. Fleming


Overweight children show different movement patterns during walking than normal-weight children, suggesting the accuracy of multisensory activity monitors may differ in these groups.


Eleven normal and 15 high BMI African American children walked at 2, 4, 5, and 6 km/h on a treadmill wearing the Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity (IDEEA) and SenseWear (SW). Accuracy was determined using indirect calorimetry and manually counted steps as references.


For IDEEA, no significant differences in accuracy were observed between BMI groups for energy expenditure (EE), but differences were significant by speed (+15% at 2 km/h to −10% at 6 km/h). For SW, EE accuracy was significantly different for high (+21%) versus normal BMI girls (−13%) at 2 km/h. For high BMI girls, EE was overestimated at low speed and underestimated at higher speeds. Underestimations in steps did not differ by BMI group at 4 to 6 km/h, but were significantly larger at 2 km/h than at the other speeds for all groups with IDEEA, and for normal BMI children with SW.


Similar accuracies during walking may be expected in normal and overweight children using IDEEA and SW. Both monitors showed small errors for steps provided speed exceeded 2 km/h.

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Costas I. Karageorghis, Denis A. Mouzourides, David-Lee Priest, Tariq A. Sasso, Daley J. Morrish and Carolyn L. Walley

The present study examined the impact of motivational music and oudeterous (neutral in terms of motivational qualities) music on endurance and a range of psychophysical indices during a treadmill walking task. Experimental participants (N = 30; mean age = 20.5 years, SD = 1.0 years) selected a program of either pop or rock tracks from artists identified in an earlier survey. They walked to exhaustion, starting at 75% maximal heart rate reserve, under conditions of motivational synchronous music, oudeterous synchronous music, and a no-music control. Dependent measures included time to exhaustion, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and in-task affect (both recorded at 2-min intervals), and exercise-induced feeling states. A one-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyze time to exhaustion data. Two-way repeated measures (Music Condition × Trial Point) ANOVAs were used to analyze in-task measures, whereas a one-way repeated measures MANOVA was used to analyze the exercise-induced feeling states data. Results indicated that endurance was increased in both music conditions and that motivational music had a greater ergogenic effect than did oudeterous music (p < .01). In addition, in-task affect was enhanced by motivational synchronous music when compared with control throughout the trial (p < .01). The experimental conditions did not impact significantly (p > .05) upon RPE or exercise-induced feeling states, although a moderate effect size was recorded for the latter (ηp 2 = .09). The present results indicate that motivational synchronous music can elicit an ergogenic effect and enhance in-task affect during an exhaustive endurance task.

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Kenneth H. Pitetti, Bart Jongmans and Bo Fernhall

The purpose of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of a treadmill (TM) test for adolescents with multiple disabilities, as defined by PL 105-17. Participants were 16 males and 2 females, ages 11 to 21 (M 14.9 ± 3.2), identified by teachers as potentially able to perform a TM test. Data were collected two times, separated by 2 to 3 weeks. Of the 18 adolescents, 5 could not perform the protocol, and 4 could not complete the test. Intraclass (test–retest) reliability coefficients for HRpeak, V̇Epeak, RERpeak, and V̇O2peak were .90, .90, .88, and .77, respectively, for the remaining 9 participants. Although none of these participants were able to meet the criteria commonly associated for a valid TM maximaltest (V̇O2max), they did meet the criteria for a valid TM maximum test (V̇O2peak) (Wasserman, Hansen, Sue, Whipp, & Casaburi, 1994). Further study of the feasibility of treadmill testing for this population is recommended.

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David R. Dolbow, Richard S. Farley, Jwa K. Kim and Jennifer L. Caputo

The purpose of this study was to examine the cardiovascular responses to water treadmill walking at 2.0 mph (3.2 km/hr), 2.5 mph (4.0 km/hr), and 3.0 mph (4.8 km/hr) in older adults. Responses to water treadmill walking in 92 °F (33 °C) water were compared with responses to land treadmill walking at 70 °F (21 °C) ambient temperature. After an accommodation period, participants performed 5-min bouts of walking at each speed on 2 occasions. Oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were significantly higher during therapeutic water treadmill walking than during land treadmill walking. Furthermore, VO2, HR, and RPE measures significantly increased with each speed increase during both land and water treadmill walking. SBP significantly increased with each speed during water treadmill walking but not land treadmill walking. Thus, it is imperative to monitor HR and blood pressure for safety during this mode of activity for older adults.

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Jeff A. Nessler, Gerald Kephart, Jason Cowell and Charles J. De Leone

Studying spontaneous synchronization of stepping as two individuals walk on side-by-side treadmills may be useful for understanding the control of bipedal locomotion and may have implications for gait rehabilitation. Existing data suggest that this behavior is related to differences in leg length, walkway slope, and overground speed between partners, and might be promoted by altering these variables. This idea was evaluated here as 24 pairs of subjects stepped on side-by-side treadmills under several conditions of relative speed and slope. Overall, pairings that demonstrated very little spontaneous synchronization with the same treadmill speed and slope exhibited significant increases in this behavior when one treadmill was manipulated. Conversely, pairings that demonstrated a tendency to synchronize under normal conditions exhibited significant decreases in this behavior when either treadmill was altered.

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Scott C. White, Louise A. Gilchrist and Kathryn A. Christina

Prescribing an appropriate adaptation period is an important consideration when using treadmills for locomotion studies. The present study investigated within-trial accommodation to running on a force measuring treadmill. Force measures were derived from vertical reaction force records of 16 runners; 8 were experienced in running on a treadmill. Three dependent measures, the peak impact force (F1), the loading rate of the impact force (LR), and the peak active force (F2) were tested for significant differences (p < 0.05) every 2 minutes of a continuous 20-min run using a two-factor ANOVA (group × time) with one repeated measure (time). Coefficients of variation (CV) for each dependent measure were tested for statistical significance in the same way. There were no significant differences in F1, LR, or F2 over any samples for the 20-min running trials. There were no significant changes in CV values for the duration of the run. The results from the present study suggest that after 30 seconds of treadmill running, there were no significant within-day accommodation effects on vertical force measures over a 20-min treadmill run. Variability between individuals in the consistency of force measures, however, could be a confounding factor. This lack of consistent response for individuals should be considered when exposing participants to experimental designs involving treadmill locomotion.

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Rebecca E. Fellin, Kurt Manal and Irene S. Davis

Researchers conduct gait analyses utilizing both overground and treadmill modes of running. Previous studies comparing these modes analyzed discrete variables. Recently, techniques involving quantitative pattern analysis have assessed kinematic curve similarity in gait. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare hip, knee and rearfoot 3-D kinematics between overground and treadmill running using quantitative kinematic curve analysis. Twenty runners ran at 3.35 m/s ± 5% during treadmill and overground conditions while right lower extremity kinematics were recorded. Kinematics of the hip, knee and rearfoot at footstrike and peak were compared using intraclass correlation coefficients. Kinematic curves during stance phase were compared using the trend symmetry method within each subject. The overall average trend symmetry was high, 0.94 (1.0 is perfect symmetry) between running modes. The transverse plane and knee frontal plane exhibited lower similarity (0.86–0.90). Other than a 4.5 degree reduction in rearfoot dorsiflexion at footstrike during treadmill running, all differences were ≤1.5 degrees. 17/18 discrete variables exhibited modest correlations (>0.6) and 8/18 exhibited strong correlations (>0.8). In conclusion, overground and treadmill running kinematic curves were generally similar when averaged across subjects. Although some subjects exhibited differences in transverse plane curves, overall, treadmill running was representative of overground running for most subjects.

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Saryn R. Goldberg, Thomas M. Kepple and Steven J. Stanhope

We increased the accuracy of an instrumented treadmill’s measurement of center of pressure and force data by calibrating in situ and optimizing the transformation between the motion capture and treadmill force plate coordinate systems. We calibrated the device in situ by applying known vertical and shear loads at known locations across the tread surface and calculating a 6 × 6 calibration matrix for the 6 output forces and moments. To optimize the transformation, we first estimated the transformation based on a locating jig and then measured center-of-pressure error across the treadmill force plate using the CalTester tool. We input these data into an optimization scheme to find the transformation between the motion capture and treadmill force plate coordinate systems that minimized the error in the center-of-pressure measurements derived from force plate and motion capture sources. When the calibration and transformation optimizations were made, the average measured error in the center of pressure was reduced to approximately 1 mm when the treadmill was stationary and to less than 3 mm when moving. Using bilateral gait data, we show the importance of calibrating these devices in situ and performing transformation optimizations.