, cardiac arrhythmias). Thus, valid submaximal exercise testing is very important among obese individuals as they have much to gain from a high quality exercise assessment and subsequent tailored intervention. However, most submaximal tests that are used—the Astrand and Rhyming step test, Astrand
Gabrielle Ringenberg, Jill M. Maples and Rachel A. Tinius
José R. Lillo-Bevia and Jesús G. Pallarés
measure cycling PO. Furthermore, relatively little information is available regarding the reliability and validity of these devices. There are several specialized standalone ergometers for laboratory use and its high level of reliability and validity have been confirmed (Lode, 1 Ergoline, 2 Monark, 2
Joonkoo Yun and Dale A. Ulrich
The purposes of this tutorial are threefold: (a) to clarify the meaning of measurement validity, (b) to provide appropriate validation procedures for use by researchers in adapted physical activity, and (c) to raise the awareness of the limitations of the traditional views on measurement validity. Several validation procedures are described with specific examples from adapted physical activity research based on traditional approaches of providing validity evidence. Conceptual and empirical limitations of the traditional validity framework are discussed. We recommend that several categories of validity evidence should be reported in research studies. We encourage practicing the unified concept of measurement validity (Messick, 1993, 1995) in adapted physical activity research and practice.
Bouwien Smits-Engelsman, Wendy Aertssen and Emmanuel Bonney
tests have received considerable attention and have been used in older children and adults as well as among sportsmen and women ( 18 ). In addition, many of these tests have been shown to have good reliability and validity in different populations ( 4 , 8 , 21 ). However, the majority of these measures
Irini Anastasiadi and George Tzetzis
The Children’s Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE) and the Preferences for Activities of Children (PAC) are 2 measures of children’s participation in various activities. The purpose of this study was the validation of the Greek version of “CAPE & PAC.”
The questionnaires were translated and pilot tested on a sample of 25 individuals. The reliability and validity of the questionnaires were tested on 302 individuals (253 typical population, 49 disabled), 6−21 years of age. The construct validity of the instruments was examined the directional hypothesis by comparing known groups with existing differences. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted to determine the validity of the typology of activities. The reliability was examined by checking the internal consistency of the instruments.
The comparison between divergent groups confirmed the predicted differences of the mean scores and the validity of the instruments. Seven factors (categories of activities) emerged from the factor analysis. The acceptable range of Cronbach alpha for the PAC scale indicated high consistency.
This study provides evidence that partially support the validity and reliability of “CAPE & PAC” instruments to use in Greek population. Further investigation is recommended for both clinical and research purposes.
Justin A. Haegele, Ali S. Brian and Donna Wolf
Our purpose in this study was to document the criterion validity of the Fitbit Zip for measuring steps taken by youth with visual impairments (VI). A secondary purpose was to determine whether walking pace, mounting position, or relative position to the user’s mobility device impacted the criterion validity of the device. Fourteen adolescent-aged individuals (M age = 15.4; 13 male and 1 female) with VI participated in this study. Participants wore four Fitbit Zips at different mounting positions and completed two, 2-min walking trials while the lead investigator hand tallied steps. Measurement validity was analyzed using absolute percent error (APE), intraclass correlation coefficients estimated level of conformity, and paired samples t tests and Cohen’s d effect sizes assessed APE relative to mounting positions. Results supported the use of the Fitbit Zip during regular-paced walking; however, caution must be used during activities exceeding regular walking speeds, as devices consistently underestimated steps.
Emma L. J. Eyre, Jason Tallis, Susie Wilson, Lee Wilde, Liam Akhurst, Rildo Wanderleys and Michael J. Duncan
. For these reasons, recent focus has been placed on the validity of estimating activity intensities in children ( Chinapaw et al., 2010 ; De Vries et al., 2009 ; Lubans et al., 2011 ), older adults ( Garatachea et al., 2010 ), and, to a lesser extent, young adults ( Watson et al., 2014 ). Young
Dawn P. Gill, Gareth R. Jones, GuangYong Zou and Mark Speechley
The purpose of this study was to develop a brief physical activity interview for older adults (Phone-FITT) and evaluate its test–retest reliability and validity. Summary scores were derived for household, recreational, and total PA. Reliability was evaluated in a convenience sample from a fall-prevention study (N = 43, 79.4 ± 2.9 years, 51% male), and validity, in a random sample of individuals in older adult exercise programs (N = 48, 77.4 ± 4.7 years, 25% male). Mean time to complete the Phone-FITT was 10 min for participants sampled from exercise programs. Evaluation of test–retest reliability indicated substantial to almost perfect agreement for all scores, with intraclass correlation coefficients (95% confidence intervals) ranging from .74 (.58–.85) to .88 (.8–.94). For validity, Spearman’s rho correlations of Phone-FITT scores with accelerometer counts ranged from .29 (.01–.53) to .57 (.34–.73). Correlations of Phone-FITT recreational scores with age and seconds to complete a self-paced step test ranged from –.29 (–.53 to –.01) to –.45 (–.68 to –.14). This study contributes preliminary evidence of the reliability and validity of the Phone-FITT.
Kate Giles and Alison L. Marshall
One- to two-week test–retest reliability and construct validity (against pedometer step counts) of the CHAMPS physical activity questionnaire were evaluated in older Australian adults.
Participants (n = 100, age >65 years) were invited to complete CHAMPS by mail. Spearman correlation coefficients are reported for physical activity constructs time (min/wk) and sessions per week for walking, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity activity and total physical activity. Correct classification of participants as meeting physical activity recommendations was assessed using percent agreement and kappa statistics.
Seventy-three participants completed CHAMPS at T1; 54 provided repeat data (T2). Sixty percent of the participants provided complete data. Good to excellent test– retest reliability was observed for all the physical activity constructs (r s = .70 to .89 for sessions/wk and r s = .65 to .75 for min/wk). Agreement between proportions classified as meeting recommendations at T1 and T2 was good (79%; kappa = 0.55). Fair to low validity coefficients were observed between steps and T1 CHAMPS walking and total activity sessions/wk (r s = .57 and r s = .52), and min/wk (r s = .40 and r s = .21).
Mailed self-complete CHAMPS data provided reliable and valid estimates of physical activity in older Australian adults. Observed measurement coefficients were comparable to those reported in previous evaluations of CHAMPS. Further work is required to identify strategies to prevent data loss.
Fotini Venetsanou, Irene Kossyva, Nadia Valentini, Anastasia-Evangelia Afthentopoulou and Lisa Barnett
Motor Development 2nd version (TGMD-2; Ulrich, 2000 ). The strength of the PMSC, compared to previous instruments, is that it provides comprehensive information about the movement skills needed for children’s participation in sports and/or physical activity ( Barnett et al., 2015b ). The validity and