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Robert W. Cox, Rodrigo E. Martinez, Russell T. Baker and Lindsay Warren

measuring ankle plantar flexion. The purpose of this study was 2-fold: (1) to assess the validity of the Clinometer Smartphone Application™ for use in the ankle (ie, plantar flexion) and (2) to assess the validity of the inclinometer procedures used to measure ankle plantar flexion. Methods A blinded

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Matheus Lima Oliveira, Isabela Christina Ferreira, Kariny Realino Ferreira, Gabriela Silveira-Nunes, Michelle Almeida Barbosa and Alexandre Carvalho Barbosa

Objective measures of muscle function provide valid information to implement effective treatment and exercise training. 5 Equipments are available for measuring muscle strength, such as hand-held dynamometers and load cells. The isokinetic dynamometer (IKD) is often referred as the gold standard to which

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Elshan Najafov, Şeyda Özal, Ahmet Yiğit Kaptan, Coşkun Ulucaköy, Ulunay Kanatlı, Baybars Ataoğlu and Selda Başar

postoperative results of LHB pathologies, it needs to be translated into other languages and culturally adapted in other countries. We believe the valid use of LHB score in Turkish is important and will replace other shoulder scoring systems for assessing postoperative results of LHB pathologies. Therefore, the

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Gabrielle Ringenberg, Jill M. Maples and Rachel A. Tinius

, cardiac arrhythmias). Thus, valid submaximal exercise testing is very important among obese individuals as they have much to gain from a high quality exercise assessment and subsequent tailored intervention. However, most submaximal tests that are used—the Astrand and Rhyming step test, Astrand

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José R. Lillo-Bevia and Jesús G. Pallarés

measure cycling PO. Furthermore, relatively little information is available regarding the reliability and validity of these devices. There are several specialized standalone ergometers for laboratory use and its high level of reliability and validity have been confirmed (Lode, 1 Ergoline, 2 Monark, 2

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Joonkoo Yun and Dale A. Ulrich

The purposes of this tutorial are threefold: (a) to clarify the meaning of measurement validity, (b) to provide appropriate validation procedures for use by researchers in adapted physical activity, and (c) to raise the awareness of the limitations of the traditional views on measurement validity. Several validation procedures are described with specific examples from adapted physical activity research based on traditional approaches of providing validity evidence. Conceptual and empirical limitations of the traditional validity framework are discussed. We recommend that several categories of validity evidence should be reported in research studies. We encourage practicing the unified concept of measurement validity (Messick, 1993, 1995) in adapted physical activity research and practice.

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Ariane L. Bedimo-Rung, Jeanette Gustat, Bradley J. Tompkins, Janet Rice and Jessica Thomson

Background:

The study’s purpose is to describe the development and evaluate the reliability (inter-observer agreement) and validity (rater agreement with a gold standard) of a direct observation instrument to assess park characteristics that may be related to physical activity.

Methods:

A direct observation instrument of 181 items was developed based on a conceptual model consisting of the following domains: features, condition, access, esthetics, and safety. Fifteen pairs of observers were trained and sent to two parks simultaneously to assess two Target Areas each.

Results:

Overall domain reliability was 86.9%, and overall geographic area reliability was 87.5%. Overall domain validity was 78.7% and overall geographic area validity was 81.5%.

Conclusions:

Inter-rater reliability and validity were generally good, although validity was slightly lower than reliability. Objective items showed the highest reliability and validity. Items that are time-sensitive may need to be measured on multiple occasions, while items asking for subjective responses may require more supervised practice.

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Bouwien Smits-Engelsman, Wendy Aertssen and Emmanuel Bonney

tests have received considerable attention and have been used in older children and adults as well as among sportsmen and women ( 18 ). In addition, many of these tests have been shown to have good reliability and validity in different populations ( 4 , 8 , 21 ). However, the majority of these measures

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Irini Anastasiadi and George Tzetzis

Background:

The Children’s Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE) and the Preferences for Activities of Children (PAC) are 2 measures of children’s participation in various activities. The purpose of this study was the validation of the Greek version of “CAPE & PAC.”

Methods:

The questionnaires were translated and pilot tested on a sample of 25 individuals. The reliability and validity of the questionnaires were tested on 302 individuals (253 typical population, 49 disabled), 6−21 years of age. The construct validity of the instruments was examined the directional hypothesis by comparing known groups with existing differences. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted to determine the validity of the typology of activities. The reliability was examined by checking the internal consistency of the instruments.

Results:

The comparison between divergent groups confirmed the predicted differences of the mean scores and the validity of the instruments. Seven factors (categories of activities) emerged from the factor analysis. The acceptable range of Cronbach alpha for the PAC scale indicated high consistency.

Conclusion:

This study provides evidence that partially support the validity and reliability of “CAPE & PAC” instruments to use in Greek population. Further investigation is recommended for both clinical and research purposes.

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Justin A. Haegele, Ali S. Brian and Donna Wolf

Our purpose in this study was to document the criterion validity of the Fitbit Zip for measuring steps taken by youth with visual impairments (VI). A secondary purpose was to determine whether walking pace, mounting position, or relative position to the user’s mobility device impacted the criterion validity of the device. Fourteen adolescent-aged individuals (M age = 15.4; 13 male and 1 female) with VI participated in this study. Participants wore four Fitbit Zips at different mounting positions and completed two, 2-min walking trials while the lead investigator hand tallied steps. Measurement validity was analyzed using absolute percent error (APE), intraclass correlation coefficients estimated level of conformity, and paired samples t tests and Cohen’s d effect sizes assessed APE relative to mounting positions. Results supported the use of the Fitbit Zip during regular-paced walking; however, caution must be used during activities exceeding regular walking speeds, as devices consistently underestimated steps.