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Carlos M. Cervantes and David L. Porretta

The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of an after school physical activity intervention on adolescents with visual impairments within the context of Social Cognitive Theory. Four adolescents with visual impairments (1 female, 3 males) between 14 and 19 years of age from a residential school for the blind served as participants. We used a range-bound changing criterion single-subject design. Physical activity was measured using ActiGraph accelerometers. Questionnaires were used to obtain information on selected social cognitive theory constructs. Results show that the intervention exerted functional control over the target behaviors (e.g., leisure-time physical activity) during intervention phases. Similarly, changes in scores for selected social cognitive constructs, in particular for outcome expectancy value, suggest a positive relationship between those constructs and physical activity behavior. No maintenance effects were observed.

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Francis M. Kozub, Hyun-Kyoung Oh and Robert A. Rider

The purpose of this study was to estimate validity and reliability for RT31 monitors when worn by 19 school age participants with visual impairments during physical education. Values from RT3 monitors were compared to observational data using the Children’s Physical Activity Form (CPAF). Estimates of reliability for the RT3 monitors were calculated by placing two monitors on participants during data collection and then calculating intraclass correlations using repeated measures. Validity estimates between RT3 monitors and CPAF scores resulted in a strong relationship (R = .89, p < .001, n = 19). Validity and reliability estimates indicate that the RT3 is a useful tool for measuring short term physical activity levels in adolescents with visual impairments.

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Suzanne Houwen, Chris Visscher, Esther Hartman and Koen A.P.M. Lemmink

The purpose of this study was to examine the test-retest reliability of physical fitness items from the European Test of Physical Fitness (Eurofit) for children with visual impairments. A sample of 21 children, ages 6-12 years, that were recruited from a special school for children with visual impairments participated. Performance on the following physical fitness items was measured on two test sessions with 4 weeks in between: sit-and-reach, standing broad jump, handgrip, sit-ups, bent-arm hang, and 20-m multistage shuttle run. The 10 × 5-m shuttle run was replaced by a 5 × 10-m shuttle run. Intraclass correlations ranged from .63 to .91, indicating moderate-to-excellent reliability. However, systematic differences between test and retest were found for the sit-and-reach, bent-arm hang, and the modified 5 × 10-m shuttle run items. The results indicate that for most items, test-retest reliability was satisfactory, but that improvements need to be made to the test protocols of the sit-and-reach, bent-arm hang, and the 5 × 10-m shuttle run items to ensure test-retest reliability.

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Elizabeth A. Holbrook, Minsoo Kang and Don W. Morgan

As a first step toward the development of adapted physical activity (PA) programs for adults with visual impairment (VI), the purpose of this study was to determine the time frame needed to reliably estimate weekly PA in adults with VI. Thirty-three adults with VI completed 7 days of pedometer-based PA assessment. Generalizability theory analyses were conducted to quantify sources of variance within the PA estimate and determine the appropriate number of days of PA monitoring needed for the total sample and for participants with mild-to-moderate and severe VI. A single-facet, crossed design was employed including participants and days. Participants and days correspondingly accounted for 33–55% and 0–3% of the total variance in PA. While a reliable account of PA was obtained for the total sample over a 6-day period, shorter (4-day) and longer (9-day) periods were required for persons with mild-to-moderate and severe VI, respectively.

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Suzanne Houwen, Esther Hartman, Laura Jonker and Chris Visscher

This study examines the psychometric properties of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) in children with visual impairments (VI). Seventy-five children aged between 6 and 12 years with VI completed the TGMD-2 and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (Movement ABC). The internal consistency of the TGMD-2 was found to be high (alpha = 0.71−0.72) and the interrater, intrarater, and test-retest reliability acceptable (ICCs ranging from 0.82 to 0.95). The results of the factor analysis supported internal test structure and significant age and sex effects were observed. Finally, the scores on the object control subtest of the TGMD-2 and the ball skills subtest of the Movement ABC correlated moderately to high (r = 0.45 to r = 0.80). Based on the current results, it is concluded that the TGMD-2 is an appropriate tool to assess the gross motor skills of primary-school-age children with VI.

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Justin A. Haegele, Ali S. Brian and Donna Wolf

Our purpose in this study was to document the criterion validity of the Fitbit Zip for measuring steps taken by youth with visual impairments (VI). A secondary purpose was to determine whether walking pace, mounting position, or relative position to the user’s mobility device impacted the criterion validity of the device. Fourteen adolescent-aged individuals (M age = 15.4; 13 male and 1 female) with VI participated in this study. Participants wore four Fitbit Zips at different mounting positions and completed two, 2-min walking trials while the lead investigator hand tallied steps. Measurement validity was analyzed using absolute percent error (APE), intraclass correlation coefficients estimated level of conformity, and paired samples t tests and Cohen’s d effect sizes assessed APE relative to mounting positions. Results supported the use of the Fitbit Zip during regular-paced walking; however, caution must be used during activities exceeding regular walking speeds, as devices consistently underestimated steps.

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Lucas Pereira, Ciro Winckler, Cesar C. Cal Abad, Ronaldo Kobal, Katia Kitamura, Amaury Veríssimo, Fabio Y. Nakamura and Irineu Loturco

This study compared the physical performance of Paralympic sprinters with visual impairments (PSVI) and their guides in jump and sprint tests. Ten PSVI and guides executed squat jumps (SJ), countermovement jumps (CMJ), horizontal quintuple right/left-leg jumps (QR/QL), decuple jumps (DEC), and 50-m-sprint tests. The guides were superior to the PSVI in SJ (35.9 ± 6.3 vs 45.6 ± 3.2 cm), CMJ (38.5 ± 6.2 vs 46.7 ± 4.0 cm), QR (9.2 ± 1.9 vs 12.7 ± 1.0 m), QL (9.4 ± 1.9 vs 13.1 ± 0.8 m), DEC (21.0 ± 3.3 vs. 27.2 ± 1.7 m), and 50-m sprints (8.4 ± 0.4 vs 7.6 ± 0.5 m/s). The average differences between the PSVI and guides in the sprint tests was 10%, range 1–24%. Therefore, substantial differences in sprinting speed (in favor of the guides) between the peers were observed. Coaches should develop strategies to train the guides to improve their muscle-power performance.

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Rafael L. Kons, Kai Krabben, David L. Mann, Gabriela Fischer and Daniele Detanico

they can attempt to attack their opponent. In most visual impairment sports, athletes compete against others with a similar degree of impairment within one of three sport classes (B1, B2, and B3 for athletes with the most to least severe level of impairment, respectively; International Paralympic

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Christina E. Miyawaki, Rebecca L. Mauldin and Carolyn R. Carman

, Baumgartner, & Garry, 1997 ). Thus, fall prevention is a public health issue not only because of the risk of falls but also because of the risk of injury ( Rubenstein, 2006 ). Visual impairment is one of the factors associated with the risk of falling for older adults ( CDC, 2017 ). As the aging population

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G. Monique Butcher and Cindy K. Piletic

Column-editor : Timothy J. Piper