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Craig A. Horswill

Amateur wrestlers practice weight loss for ergogenic reasons. The effects of rapid weight loss on aerobic performance are adverse and profound, but the effects on anaerobic performance are equivocal Anaerobic performance—strength and power—may be the most relevant type of performance to the wrestler. Maintenance of or even small decrements in anaerobic performance may translate into improvements in performance relative to the weight class, the factor by which wrestlers are matched for competition. During the recovery period between the official weigh-in and competition, wrestlers achieve at least partial nutritional recovery, which appears to benefit performance. Successive bouts of (a) weight loss to make weight and (b) recovery for performance lead to weight cycling. There is speculation that weight cycling may contribute to chronic glycogen depletion, reductions in fat-free weight, a decrease in resting metabolic rate, and an increase in body fat. The latter two would augment the difficulty of losing weight for subsequent weigh-ins. Most research indicates that the suppressed resting metabolic rate with weight loss in wrestlers appears to be transient, but subsequent research is needed for confirmation.

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Terry L. Bazzarre, Susan M. Kleiner and Barbara E. Ainsworth

This research compared nutrient intake data with blood lipids and anthropometric data. Height, weight, and seven skinfolds were collected 3 days prior to competition at the official weigh-in. The lipids measured were total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), and the HDL2 and HDL3 cholesterol subfractions. The subjects were 17 males and 17 females. Descriptive data are presented as means and standard deviations of the means. Protein, fat, and carbohydrate provided about 40, 12, and 48%, respectively, of total energy intake; vitamin C was >200 mgfday. Only dietary fat was significantly (p < 0.05) associated with TC for females. Fiber was significantly associated with HDL-C and HDL2-C for males and with HDL-C for females. Vitamin C was significantly associated with HDL-C, HDL2-C, and HDL3-C for males, and with HDL-C and HDL3-C for females. These findings are consistent with those reported by Bazzarre et al. in farmers and suggest that vitamin C may favorably influence HDL-C metabolism.

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Lewis J. James and Susan M. Shirreffs

Weight categorized athletes use a variety of techniques to induce rapid weight loss (RWL) in the days leading up to weigh in. This study examined the fluid and electrolyte balance responses to 24-hr fluid restriction (FR), energy restriction (ER) and fluid and energy restriction (F+ER) compared with a control trial (C), which are commonly used techniques to induce RWL in weight category sports. Twelve subjects (six male, six female) received adequate energy and water (C) intake, adequate energy and restricted water (~10% of C; FR) intake, restricted energy (~25% of C) and adequate water (ER) intake or restricted energy (~25% of C) and restricted (~10% of C) water intake (F+ER) in a randomized counterbalanced order. Subjects visited the laboratory at 0 hr, 12 hr, and 24 hr for blood and urine sample collection. Total body mass loss was 0.33% (C), 1.88% (FR), 1.97% (ER), and 2.44% (F+ER). Plasma volume was reduced at 24 hr during FR, ER, and F+ER, while serum osmolality was increased at 24 hr for FR and F+ER and was greater at 24 hr for FR compared with all other trials. Negative balances of sodium, potassium, and chloride developed during ER and F+ER but not during C and FR. These results demonstrate that 24 hr fluid and/or energy restriction significantly reduces body mass and plasma volume, but has a disparate effect on serum osmolality, resulting in hypertonic hypohydration during FR and isotonic hypohydration during ER. These findings might be explained by the difference in electrolyte balance between the trials.

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Peter D. Kupcis, Gary J. Slater, Cathryn L. Pruscino and Justin G. Kemp

Purpose:

The effect of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion on prerace hydration status and on 2000 m ergometer performance in elite lightweight rowers was examined using a randomized, cross-over, double-blinded design.

Methods:

To simulate body mass (BM) management strategies common to lightweight rowing, oarsmen reduced BM by approx. 4% in the 24 h preceding the trials, and, in the 2 h before performance, undertook nutritional recovery consisting of mean 43.2 kJ/kg, 2.2 g of CHO per kilogram, 31.8 mg of Na+ per kilogram, 24.3 mL of H2O per kilogram, and NaHCO3 (0.3 g of NaHCO3 per kilogram BM) or placebo (PL; 0.15 g of corn flour per kilogram BM) at 70 to 90 min before racing.

Results:

At 25 min before performance, NaHCO3 had increased blood pH (7.48 ± 0.02 vs PL: 7.41 ± 0.03, P = .005) and bicarbonate concentrations (29.1 ± 1.8 vs PL: 23.9 ± 1.6 mmol/L, P < .001), whereas BM, urine specific gravity, and plasma volume changes were similar between trials. Rowing ergometer times were similar between trials (NaHCO3: 397.8 ± 12.6; PL: 398.6 ± 13.8 s, P = .417), whereas posttest bicarbonate (11.6 ± 2.3 vs 9.4 ± 1.8 mmol/L, P = .003) and lactate concentration increases (13.4 ± 1.7 vs 11.9 ± 1.9 mmol/L, P = .001) were greater with NaHCO3.

Conclusion:

Sodium bicarbonate did not further enhance rehydration or performance in lightweight rowers when undertaking recommended post-weigh-in nutritional recovery strategies.

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Thomas W. Buford, Douglas B. Smith, Matthew S. O’Brien, Aric J. Warren and Stephen J. Rossi

Purpose:

The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the physiological response of collegiate wrestlers to their competitive season.

Methods:

Eleven Division I collegiate wrestlers (mean ± SD; 19.45 ± 1.13 y) volunteered and completed 4 testing sessions throughout the course of the collegiate wrestling season. Testing sessions were conducted pre-, mid-, and postseason, as well as before the national tournament. Testing consisted of weigh-in, skinfold body composition testing, and a 50-rep concentric, isokinetic leg extension muscle endurance test (180°/s). Muscular performance variables measured included peak torque, peak torque at fatigue, percent decline, and peak torque/body mass ratio.

Results:

A significant increase (P < .05) of 2.9% was observed for body mass between midseason and postseason (2.38 kg). From pre- to postseason, a mean increase of 3.8% (3.1 kg) was observed for body mass. An increase (P < .05) in BF% of 2.9% was observed between prenationals and postseason. No significant differences (P > .05) were observed between consecutive time points for quadriceps peak torque; however, there was a significant increase (P < .05) between preseason and prenationals (23.39 N·m). Peak torque at fatigue was greater (P < .05) at midseason than preseason, representing an increase of 9.82 N·m. Between midseason and prenationals testing, we observed an 11% increase (P < .05) in %DCLN. Finally, we noted an increase (P < .05) from 0.6 to 0.69 in peak torque/body mass ratio between preseason and prenationals.

Conclusions:

Our results indicate that while force values seem to suffer at midseason, the wrestlers compensated and were strongest just before their national competition.

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Oliver R. Barley, Dale W. Chapman and Chris R. Abbiss

Typically, combat sports are divided into weight divisions in an effort to standardize competitors’ size and strength. Athletes are weighed prior to competition, with the time between weigh-in and competition varying (from less than 1 h up to 24 h). 1 , 2 To gain a weight advantage over opponents

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Reid Reale, Gary Slater and Louise M. Burke

fat to lower BM, fighters’ commonly “exploit” the notion of weight divisions by competing in a division below their “training weight.” 1 This is commonly achieved via rapid weight loss (RWL) in the hours and days (potentially up to a week) before the official weigh-in, before utilizing the period

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Damir Zubac, Hrvoje Karnincic and Damir Sekulic

allow them to take advantage of arguably weaker rivals and compete in weight divisions below their normal weight. 2 The underlying, widely accepted assumption is that the acute, whole body weight regain maximized between the official weigh-in and the beginning of a competition would translate into

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Damir Zubac, Drazen Cular and Uros Marusic

official weigh-in) to discourage aggressive weight-reduction despite the tragic events in combat sports, including death. 3 , 4 Recently, Reljic et al 5 proposed that adverse health-related issues in adolescent boxers originate from body-fluid manipulations, primarily achieved by acute dehydration, to

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Kadhiresan R. Murugappan, Michael N. Cocchi, Somnath Bose, Sara E. Neves, Charles H. Cook, Todd Sarge, Shahzad Shaefi and Akiva Leibowitz

additional 5% the day prior to the weigh-in ( Crighton et al., 2016 ). Despite attempts at rehydration, Jetton et al. ( 2013 ) found that only 23% of mixed martial artists were well hydrated before competition. Furthermore, up to 80% of combat sports athletes may be significantly dehydrated on the day of