regarding weight classes and weight management strategies. Rapid weight loss presented a small effect size in the present outcomes. Previous findings have suggested that one of the effects of RWL is moderate dehydration (3–4% of body weight) status ( Franchini et al., 2012 ; Matthews & Nicholas, 2017 ), as
Victor Silveira Coswig, Bianca Miarka, Daniel Alvarez Pires, Levy Mendes da Silva, Charles Bartel and Fabrício Boscolo Del Vecchio
Craig Donnachie, Kate Hunt, Nanette Mutrie, Jason M.R. Gill and Paul Kelly
PAL3 ™ ) and self-report (International Physical Activity Questionnaire; IPAQ, Short Form) PA measures to detect changes in PA behavior, using data collected before and after participation in the Football Fans in Training (FFIT) program, a weight management and healthy lifestyle intervention for men
Holly R. Wyatt, Bonnie T. Jortberg, Christine Babbel, Sara Garner, Fang Dong, Gary K. Grunwald and James O. Hill
This project addresses the need to identify feasible, effective weight-management programs that can be implemented within communities. The controversial role of dairy products in weight-management programs is also explored.
The “Calcium Weighs-In” weight-loss program placed equal emphasis on diet and physical activity and was delivered within a community intervention to promote dairy consumption in Calcium, New York. One hundred ninety-nine adults in Calcium, NY, participated in the weight-loss program. Weight loss, increase in dairy intake, increase in steps, decrease in blood pressure, decrease in waist circumference, and decrease in body mass index (BMI) were examined.
The mean weight loss for 116 subjects who completed the program was 6.0 ± 4.2 kg (mean ± SD, P < .0001) with a percent weight change of 6.4% ± 4.2% (P < .0001). An increase of 3582 ± 4070 steps (P < .0001), as well as an increase of 0.8 ± 1.2 dairy servings (P < .0001) was seen. Higher average dairy consumption was associated with greater weight loss and a greater decrease in waist circumference.
The results show that effective weight-management programs can be implemented within communities. The results are also consistent with recommendations to include low-fat dairy products and a physical activity component in weight-management programs.
Dana K. Voelker and Justine J. Reel
In this study, the authors examined female competitive figure skaters’ experiences of weight pressure in sport. Perceptions of the ideal skating body; sources of weight pressure; ways that body image, weight-management behaviors, and athletic performance have been affected; and recommendations for improving body image were explored. Aligning with a social constructivist view (Creswell, 2014), data were analyzed using an inductive thematic approach (Braun & Clarke, 2006). Skaters described the ideal skating body in an inflexible fashion with little room for deviation and acceptance of body diversity. Skaters cited their first weightpressure experience between 7 and 14 years of age, which most notably involved coaches, parents, skating partners, and other aspects of the skating culture. These experiences were characterized as promoting body-image concerns, unhealthy weight-management strategies, and interference with the psychological aspects of on-ice performance. Results from this study demonstrate the need to construct and maintain body-positive skating environments.
Gwen E. Chapman
This paper uses a Foucauldian framework for understanding how human experience is shaped by relations of power to explore the weight management practices of members of a women’s lightweight rowing team. Like other forms of disciplinary power, making weight involves implementing a regimen governed by normalizing assumptions, maintained through self-monitoring, and supported by discourse. The practices of making weight also are examined as a technology of the self that the rowers used to create and understand themselves. The position of women’s sport at the intersection of sports and gender discourse offered the rowers opportunities to oppose relations of power while reinforcing their limits within the confines of a disciplinary matrix.
James J. Annesi
Background: Physical activity (PA)–related mood improvement is important because it positively affects predictors of weight-management behaviors. Methods: Decline in PA, mood, and exercise self-efficacy after an initial 6 months of gains were assessed in 93 women in a behavioral obesity treatment. Results: Reduction in change in PA during months 6 to 24, but not actual PA, significantly predicted increased negative mood. For participants whose negative mood increased, their 7 days per week PA regimens were reduced by ∼2.5 days per week versus ∼1 day per week without an increase. Exercise self-efficacy significantly mediated the PA–mood change relationship. Conclusions: Mood-related benefits of sustaining PA beyond initial treatment months were clarified.
Nicola W. Burton, Gavin Turrell, Brian Oldenburg and James F. Sallis
This study assessed the relative contributions of psychological, social, and environmental variables to walking, moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity.
A questionnaire was mailed to a random sample (57% response rate). Analyses used a backwards elimination logistic regression model, removing and replacing individual variables, and adjusting for age, gender, household composition, and education (N = 1827).
The sociodemographic and correlate variables collectively accounted for 43% of the variation in total activity, 26% of walking, 22% of moderate-intensity activity and 45% of vigorous-intensity activity (Nagelkerke R2). Individually, the correlates accounted for 0.0 to 4.0% of unique variation, with habit, efficacy, and support having higher values. Physical health, discouragement, competition, and time management contributed more to vigorous-intensity activity. Anticipated benefits of social interactions and weight management contributed more to moderate-intensity activity. Neighborhood aesthetics contributed more to walking.
Walking, moderate- and vigorous-intensity activity might be associated with different correlates.
Ashley Coker-Cranney and Justine J. Reel
When athletes “uncritically accept” the coaching expectations associated with their sport, negative health consequences (e.g., disordered eating behaviors, clinical eating disorders) may result. The coach’s influence on disordered eating behaviors may be a product of factors related to overconformity to the sport ethic, issues with coach communication regarding recommendations for weight management, and the strength of the coach-athlete relationship. The present study investigated perceived weight-related coach pressure, the coach-athlete relationship, and disordered eating behaviors by surveying 248 female varsity athletes and dancers from four universities. Mediational analysis revealed that the coach-athlete relationship was a partial mediating variable between perceived coach pressures and disordered eating behaviors. Subsequently, strong relationships between coaches and their athletes may reduce the negative impact of perceived weight-related coach pressure on the development or exacerbation of disordered eating behaviors in female collegiate athletes.
Lenka Humenikova Shriver, Nancy Mulhollen Betts and Mark Edward Payton
Many wrestlers engage in chronic dieting and rapid “weight cutting” throughout the year to compete in a category below their natural weight. Such weightmanagement practices have a negative influence on their health and nutritional status, so the National Wrestling Coaches Association implemented a new weight-management program for high school wrestlers in 2006.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether seasonal changes in weight, body fat, and eating attitudes occur among high school wrestlers after the implementation of the new weight-management rule.
Fifteen high school wrestlers participated in the study. Their weight, body composition, and eating attitudes were measured preseason, in-season, and off-season. Body fat was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Attitudes toward dieting, food, and body weight were assessed using the Eating Attitude Test (EAT).
No significant changes in body fat were detected from preseason to off-season. Weight increased from preseason to in-season (p < .05) and off-season (p < .05). Although the EAT score did not change significantly from preseason to offseason, 60% reported “thinking about burning up calories when exercising” during preseason, and only 40% felt that way during the season (p < .05) and 47% during off-season (p < .05).
The wrestlers experienced a significant weight gain from preseason to off-season with no significant changes in body fat. Their eating attitudes did not change significantly from preseason to off-season in this study, but further research using a large sample of high school wrestlers is warranted to confirm these findings.
Eric C. Haakonssen, David T. Martin, Louise M. Burke and David G. Jenkins
Body composition in a female road cyclist was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (5 occasions) and anthropometry (10 occasions) at the start of the season (Dec to Mar), during a period of chronic fatigue associated with poor weight management (Jun to Aug), and in the following months of recovery and retraining (Aug to Nov). Dietary manipulation involved a modest reduction in energy availability to 30–40 kcal · kg fat-free mass−1 · d−1 and an increased intake of high-quality protein, particularly after training (20 g). Through the retraining period, total body mass decreased (−2.82 kg), lean mass increased (+0.88 kg), and fat mass decreased (−3.47 kg). Hemoglobin mass increased by 58.7 g (8.4%). Maximal aerobic- and anaerobic-power outputs were returned to within 2% of preseason values. The presented case shows that through a subtle energy restriction associated with increased protein intake and sufficient energy intake during training, fat mass can be reduced with simultaneous increases in lean mass, performance gains, and improved health.