J. Vincent, Charles Imwold, J. T. Johnson and Dwayne Massey
This study was a comparison of how selected newspapers from Canada, Great Britain, and the United States reported on female athletes competing in four “gender-appropriate” sports with female athletes competing in four “gender-inappropriate” sports at the Centennial Olympic Games. The liberal feminist theoretical framework underpinning this study views equality of opportunity and individual liberty as an inevitable by-product of political, legal, and educational reform juxtaposed with a gradual social acceptance. Content Analysis was used to examine all the articles and photographs from the front pages and the sports sections of the newspapers. Based upon the data, female athletes competing in the “gender-appropriate” sports of swimming, gymnastics, tennis, and diving received more newspaper coverage than female athletes competing in the “gender-inappropriate” sports of soccer, softball, field hockey, and volleyball in terms of the average number of words per article and the average number of paragraphs per article. In addition, the “gender-appropriate” athletes were over-represented in the average number of photographs, the average number of photographs on the first page, and the average number of photographs on the top of the pages. Qualitative analyses of articles and photographs revealed a subtle but discernable amount of culturally stereotyped coverage.
Jennifer A. Stone
Wade P. Smith
John Harris and John Vincent
The spectacular success of Team GB in the London 2012 Olympic Games saw an extension of a popular celebration of Britishness. Drawing on an analysis of Olympic coverage in the Western Mail, self-styled national newspaper of Wales (papur cenedlaethol Cymru), this study explores the ways in which narratives of the nation are (re)presented in a particular locale. After a brief discussion of the opening ceremony, key events from the Games, including the staging of football matches in the capital city of Cardiff, the singing of “God Save the Queen” before football matches, and the medal successes of Welsh athletes, are used as cases to explore the multiple layers of national identities at play. The analysis highlights the complementary, complex, and at times contradictory interplay between Welsh and British identities within these narratives and explores the often fuzzy and sometimes hazy frontiers of identity.
Dana L. Ellis, Milena M. Parent and Benoit Seguin
This article examines how Olympic ambush marketing stakeholder power and transfer of sponsorship, as well as ambush marketing knowledge, have influenced institutional processes leading to the institutionalization of antiambush legislation over the years. Using a qualitative case study design and network analysis, findings show the International Olympic Committee and Organizing Committees for the Olympic Games demonstrate the greatest stakeholder influence within the Olympic ambush marketing network. The power and influence resulting from the structure of Olympic ambush marketing networks was argued to impact the institutional processes of objectification and sedimentation. Various knowledge transfer tools, as well as challenges and issues faced in this area, seem to act as moderators for the relationship between network structures and the process of institutionalization.
Robert J. Gregor
Edited by Richard C. Nelson
James G. Hay
The purposes of this study were to determine the frequency with which triple jumpers used hop-dominated, balanced, and jump-dominated techniques to achieve their best distances in Olympic competition; whether the use of one of these techniques generally yielded greater actual distances than did the use of the others; and how the actual distances achieved by specific athletes were related to the way in which they distributed their efforts through the three phases. Data were collected at the 1996 Olympic Games in Atlanta. About half the competitors used a hop-dominated technique. Balanced and jump-dominated techniques were just as effective as hop-dominated techniques. Four of the top eight finishers tended to use hop percentages that were longer than the optimum for them.