Athena Yiamouyiannis and Kay Hawes
The 2009–10 Equity in Athletics Disclosure Act (EADA) data were used to analyze and compare student enrollment, sport participation rates/participants, and scholarship allocation at NCAA Division I, II, and III colleges and their subdivisions from a critical perspective through the lens of feminism. The EADA data included 1,062 NCAA collegiate institutions, with 350 Division I colleges, 209 in Division II, and 420 in Division III. Within Division I, the three subdivisions included I-A (FBS), I-AA (FCS), and I-AAA (without football). For Divisions II and III, findings were reported for colleges with and without football. Of the 6 million students attending NCAA colleges, 54% are female students, while only 43% of sport participants are women, which reflects an 11% gap between female enrollment and sport participation. Scholarship allocation appears to favor women when using the OCR comparison of scholarships to participants; however, the opposite conclusion is drawn based upon additional information.
Benito J. Velasquez and Jan Drummond
“About Women. By Women. For Us All” is the tagline for ESPN’s Nine for IX documentary series about women in sport. Developed to commemorate the 1972 passage of Title IX, the legislation responsible for the dramatic increase in female sports participation in the United States, ESPN promotes Nine
because of the mounting evidence of CTE and long-term health consequences of playing. Self-Interest and Title IX In what ways, then, can Kendi’s work on race, as reflected in these brief examples, help us cast a similar lens to other areas of inequality? One of my longest running topics of research has
Elizabeth A. Taylor, Jessica L. Siegele, Allison B. Smith and Robin Hardin
It is well documented that since the passage of Title IX, the number of women participating in collegiate sport has dramatically increased ( Acosta & Carpenter, 2014 ). However, women in leadership and coaching positions have grown at a significantly lower rate than the number of participants has
Mary Jo Kane and Nicole LaVoi
Two generations removed from Title IX, women have made remarkable and unprecedented advances in the world of sports, one of the most powerful social, political, and economic institutions in this society. In terms of participation alone, more females are engaged in organized sports at all levels of
Mindy Millard-Stafford, Ann E. Swanson and Matthew T. Wittbrodt
federal legislation (Title IX), sport opportunities for US women increased beyond high school (eg, due to college scholarships), although the deadline for institutions to comply was much later. Moreover, recent financial incentives from US National Team/Olympic medal compensation and professionalism are
Despite the tremendous growth in female sports participation opportunities under Title IX, black females have not benefited to the same degree as their white female counterparts. While gender complaints about female athletes still lagging behind males in participatory opportunities, scholarships, facilities and equipment are being discussed, larger structural inequities associated with being black and female remain absent from the Title IX conversation, demonstrating the dual invisibility of black females. Not only is this true at predominantly white institutions, it’s also true at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), academic institutions which have been sources of educational and athletic opportunities for black females long before the passage of Title IX prohibited sex discrimination in any federally funded educational programs and activities.
Malgré l’importante croissance d’opportunités de participation en sport féminin grâce à Title IX, les femmes noires n’ont pas bénéficié autant que les femmes blanches. Alors que les plaintes au sujet des femmes athlètes étaient encore à la traîne des hommes en ce qui concerne les opportunités de participation, les bourses, les installations et l’équipement font l’objet de discussions, les plus grandes injustices structurales associées au fait d’être noire et d’être une femme demeurent absentes de la conversation au sujet de Title IX, démontrant la double invisibilité des femmes noires. Non seulement estce vrai dans les établissements à prédominance blanche, cela est également vrai dans les collèges et universités historiquement noirs, des établissements scolaires qui ont été des sources d’opportunités éducationnelles et athlétiques bien avant que Title IX ne vienne interdire la discrimination en fonction du sexe dans tous les programmes et activités éducationnels financés par le gouvernement fédéral.
Demetrius W. Pearson
Female involvement and accomplishments within sport have reached unprecedented levels. This has been due, in part, to the passing and enforcement of Title IX. Yet, few films have embraced female achievement in sport as indicated through their depiction as heroines (ìsheroesî). The author analyzed the salient similarities and differences between the depiction of women in sport theme feature films (sport films) before and after Title IX. Emphasis was placed on the aggregate number of sport films, type and content, and perceived social and cultural significance of female depictions. Content analysis and archival research methodologies were employed. These included the systematic examination and coding of all identified American sport films highlighting heroines from 1930-1999 (N = 41), as well as the analysis of critical reviews of the sport films which were unavailable for viewing. Based upon results there has been a notable increase in the depiction of women as heroines in sport films after Title IX. However, like their predecessors, women’s athletic prowess was trivialized in many of the films by their comedic themes and attentions to heterosexual attractiveness. These findings, as well as others, raise intriguing questions regarding the messages communicated through sport films.