Fantasy sport joins competition, sport knowledge, and socialization into one interactive sport activity. This research specifically focuses on the socialization aspects of the activity. This analysis addresses overall satisfaction in fantasy sport, future intentions to return to the activity, and reasons why fantasy sport users (FSUs) do or do not use message boards. Data were collected from 322 FSUs in a questionnaire format using quantitative-scale items and qualitative open-ended questions. The results indicate 62.1% (n = 200) of the sample using message boards in their fantasy sport experience. Reasons for their use were based on the themes of logistical conversation, socializing, surveillance, and advice or opinion. FSUs chose not to use message boards for reasons based on no interest, information, time, and alternative options. Other results indicate that those using message boards have higher overall satisfaction and future use intentions than those not using message boards. This suggests that message boards enhance the fantasy sport experience.
Brody J. Ruihley and Robin L. Hardin
Lilian Pichot, Gary Tribou and Norm O’Reilly
Successful sponsorship activities in sport often rely on the integration of relationship marketing, internal marketing, external corporate promotion, and strategic management. Although traditional marketing objectives such as brand integration and consumer targeting remain key components of promotional activities in sport, the use of sport sponsorship in today’s environment increasingly implicates personnel issues in the both the sponsor and the sponsee. In fact, sport sponsorship has become a useful tool for some sponsors and sponsees who seek to motivate and involve their employees more in company activities. Therefore, the focus of this commentary is on the internal-communication and human-resources management functions involved in sport sponsorship decisions. The use of mini-case analyses and a dual-perspective (external and internal objectives) approach allows for informed discussion, and suggestions are made for future research.
George R. Milne, Mark A. McDonald, William A. Button and Rajiv Kashyap
This research examines the competitive niche positions of 36 sports and fitness activities reported in an American Sports Activities 1993 tracking study. The article discusses the advantages of viewing competition from an ecological niche perspective and presents a measure of competitive resource overlap (CRO) used in marketing for measuring niche breadth and niche overlap. The empirical study presents an intuitive mapping of the sports market and calculates the niche breadth and niche overlap for each sport. Managerial implications for sporting goods manufacturers, advertising agencies, corporate sponsors, fitness consultants, and other professionals interested in participant sports markets are given.
Joon-Ho Kang, Richard P. Bagozzi and Jawang Oh
Although emotion has occasionally been examined as a dependent variable or outcome of physical activity involvement, it rarely has been studied as an antecedent. This study examines the role of emotion in decision-making processes for participant sport consumption. A structural model is proposed to integrate emotions with self-image congruency and attitudes as antecedents of the decision to initiate physical activity in the consumption context. Context effects were investigated by two scenarios: (1) joining a private health club and (2) skiing in an indoor ski resort. A total of 199 persons responded, and structural equation models were examined. The results indicate that emotion mediates the influence of attitudes and self-image congruency on the decision to join the club and resort. The pattern of the relationships among utilitarian, self-based, and emotive evaluations depends on the sport consumption context. Discussion of theoretical and practical issues is presented and directions for future research are suggested.
The business of fantasy football is a multibillion dollar-per-year industry. However, academic inquiry into the distinct attitudes and intentions of fantasy football participants is underdeveloped. Therefore, following Fazio, Powell, and Herr’s proposed attitude–behavior framework, this study examined the relationship between sport fans’ attitudes, fantasy football involvement level, and intentions to watch the televised broadcast of National Football League (NFL) games. The results suggest that fantasy football is a noteworthy connection point for NFL fans. Specifically, fantasy participation appears to duplicate the positive and negative attitudes of traditional team fandom, and this replication ultimately increases television viewership throughout the league. Thus, instead of competing with traditional team-focused professional-football viewership, fantasy football appears to be a complementary or value-adding activity. Discussed are theoretical outcomes, as well as the practical implications for sport marketers and media providers looking to capitalize on this highly popular and lucrative online activity.
Stephanie Cunningham, T. Bettina Cornwell and Leonard V. Coote
Despite the popularity of sponsorship-linked marketing programs, we know little about how firms form sponsorship policies. This article describes a corporate identity-sponsorship policy link and offers empirical support for it via a mixed method research design. Content analysis of 146 Fortune 500 companies’ online sponsorship policies and mission statements is followed by cluster, factor and multinomial regression techniques. Results show that corporate identity, as reflected in mission statements, matters to sponsorship policy. Specifically, companies emphasizing financial success in their mission statements prefer to sponsor individual athletes, education, the environment and health-related activities. Alternatively, companies stressing the importance of employees demonstrate a propensity to sponsor team sports, entertainment, religious, community, charity and business related activities. Reasons for these strategic differences are discussed.
W. James Weese
This descriptive research study was conducted to investigate the concepts of transformational leadership and organizational culture within the administrative levels of campus recreation programs of Big Ten and Mid-American Conference universities. While transformational leadership was quantitatively measured by the Leadership Behavior Questionnaire (LBQ), the Culture Strength Assessment (CSA) and Culture Building Activities (CBA) instruments provided two quantitative measures of organizational culture. Qualitative data were also collected and analyzed to enrich and cross validate the findings. The researcher concluded that high transformational leaders direct programs that (a) possess stronger organizational cultures and (b) carry out culture-building activities, specifically the “customer orientation” function, to a greater extent than other leaders do. An interaction effect between leadership and conference was uncovered for this variable. No significant difference was uncovered between the high and low leadership groups relative to the penetration of culture throughout the top four hierarchical levels of the organization.
Timothy D. DeSchriver and Paul E. Jensen
The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between spectator attendance at NCAA Division II football contests and selected determinants by estimating multiple economic demand models. The two primary determinants analyzed were winning percentage and promotional activity. Demand models were estimated using OLS and fixed-effect regression analysis. The results suggested that both current and previous year winning percentages are positively related to attendance. Furthermore, it is shown that the effect of previous season winning on attendance diminishes while the effect of current season winning increases as the season progresses. The results also indicated that promotional activities, the number of enrolled students, and market competition significantly affected attendance. Overall, the demand models explained between 37 and 70 percent of the variation in spectator attendance. The findings of this study may aid Division II athletic administrators who are attempting to increase revenues by attracting additional spectators to small-college football contests.
Terry R. Haggerty and Denise Denomme
Multivariate analyses of responses from 327 undergraduate student members of 17 university recreational sport clubs indicated that eight variables jointly explained 35.3% of the variance in members’ organizational commitment. They were (a) the importance of management related items, (b) the emphasis the club placed on delivering its service, (c) the lack of emphasis the club placed on status related items, (d) the emphasis the club placed on social aspects, (e) members’ current involvement in physical activity, (f) reduced travel time to club gatherings, (g) increased preparation time for club activities, and (h) gender, with males expressing more commitment than females. The study concluded that management related factors were among the most important aspects in affecting member commitment in sport clubs. Implications for practicing managers and researchers were addressed.
Several models of organizational effectiveness are integrated into a comprehensive framework from a viewpoint of organizations as open systems. The multidimensionality of effectiveness is seen as emanating from both the input-throughput-output conceptualization of an organization and the distinctive domains of activities of an organization. The relevance of specific dimensions of effectiveness is said to be contingent upon the type of organization and/or the domain of activities the organization is engaged in. The paper describes the multiple constituency approaches that variously emphasize the need to satisfy the powerful groups, the least advantaged groups, or different groups at different times. The position taken in this paper, however, advocates the perspective of the “prime beneficiary.”