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Karla E. Foster, Timothy K. Behrens, Abigail L. Jager and David A. Dzewaltowski

Background:

This study evaluated the effect of elimination and nonelimination games on objectively measured physical activity and psychosocial responses in children.

Methods:

A total of 29 children in grades 4 to 6 (65.5% male; 10.5 ± 1.0 years old) wore an accelerometer while participating in 2 elimination and 2 nonelimination games. Activity counts were collected using a 30-second epoch and converted to METs to determine minutes spent in sedentary behavior and light, moderate, vigorous, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Self-efficacy, enjoyment, and peer-victimization were assessed on 4 occasions (before and after 2 elimination and 2 nonelimination games).

Results:

Overall, girls spent more time in sedentary behavior compared with boys. Children engaged in significantly more moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during nonelimination games compared with elimination games. Furthermore, children significantly increased self-efficacy after playing both game sessions. A significant interaction between type of game and time of measurement in the prediction of enjoyment showed that enjoyment modestly increased after elimination games and slightly decreased after nonelimination games. There were no differences in peer-victimization.

Conclusion:

This study provides preliminary evidence that nonelimination games provide more moderate-to-vigorous physical activity compared with elimination games, but elimination games may be more enjoyable.

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Melissa Raymond, Adele Winter and Anne E. Holland

Background:

Older adults undergoing rehabilitation may have limited mobility, slow gait speeds and low levels of physical activity. Devices used to quantify activity levels in older adults must be able to detect these characteristics.

Objective:

To investigate the validity of the Positional Activity Logger (PAL2) for monitoring position and measuring physical activity in older inpatients (slow stream rehabilitation).

Methods:

Twelve older inpatients (≥65 years) underwent a 1-hour protocol (set times in supine, sitting, standing; stationary and moving). Participants were video-recorded while wearing the PAL2. Time spent in positions and walking (comfortable and fast speeds) were ascertained through video-recording analysis and compared with PAL2 data.

Results:

There was no difference between the PAL2 and video recording for time spent in any position (P-values 0.055 to 0.646). Walking speed and PAL2 count were strongly correlated (Pearson’s r = .913, P < .01). The PAL2 was responsive to within-person changes in gait speed: activity count increased by an average of 52.47 units (95% CI 3.31, 101.63). There was 100% agreement for transitions between lying to sitting and < 1 transition difference between siting to standing.

Conclusion:

The PAL2 is a valid tool for quantifying activity levels, position transitions, and within-person changes in gait speed in older inpatients.

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Robert E. Davis and Paul D. Loprinzi

Objectives:

To examine whether accelerometer-measured physical activity–based reactivity was present in a nationally representative sample of U.S. children (6–11 yrs), adolescents (12–17 yrs), and adults (≥20 yrs).

Methods:

Data from the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (N = 674, 6–85 yrs) were used. Physical activity (PA) was assessed using the ActiGraph 7164 accelerometer, with PA assessed over 7 days of monitoring. Two PA metrics were assessed, including activity counts per day (CPD) and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA. Evidence of reactivity was defined as a statistically significantly change in either of these 2 PA metrics from day 1 of monitoring to days 2 or 3, with day 1 of monitoring being a Monday.

Results:

Suggestion of reactivity was observed only for the adult population where CPD from days 2 and 3 (297,140.6 ± 7920.3 and 295,812.9 ± 8364.9), respectively, differed significantly from day 1 (309,611.5 ± 9134.9) over the monitoring period (4.0% to 4.5% change). The analysis was conducted 2 additional times with differing start days (Tuesday and Wednesday), and this approach failed to demonstrated a reactive presence.

Conclusion:

In this national sample of U.S. children, adolescents and adults, we did not observe sufficient evidence of accelerometer reactivity.

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Andrea K. Chomistek, Eric J. Shiroma and I-Min Lee

Background:

Physical activity is important for maintaining healthy weight. The time of day when exercise is performed—a highly discretionary aspect of behavior—may impact weight control, but evidence is limited. Thus, we examined the association between the timing of physical activity and obesity risk in women.

Methods:

A cross-sectional analysis was conducted among 7157 Women’s Health Study participants who participated in an ancillary study begun in 2011 that is measuring physical activity using accelerometers. The exposure was percentage of total accelerometer counts accumulated before 12:00 noon and the outcome was obesity.

Results:

Mean (±SD) BMI among participants was 26.1 (±4.9) kg/m2 and 1322 women were obese. The mean activity counts per day was 203,870 (±95,811) of which a mean 47.1% (±11.5%) were recorded in the morning. In multivariable-adjusted models, women who recorded < 39% (lowest quartile) of accelerometer counts before 12:00 noon had a 26% higher odds of being obese, compared with those recording ≥ 54% (highest quartile) of counts before noon (P trend = 0.02).

Conclusions:

These study findings—that women who are less active during morning hours may be at higher risk of obesity—if confirmed can provide a novel strategy to help combat the important health problem of obesity.

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Rachel A. Jones, Annaleise Riethmuller, Kylie Hesketh, Jillian Trezise, Marijka Batterham and Anthony D. Okely

The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility, acceptability and potential efficacy of a physical activity program for preschool children. A 20-week, 2-arm parallel cluster randomized controlled pilot trial was conducted. The intervention comprised structured activities for children and professional development for staff. The control group participated in usual care activities, which included designated inside and outside playtime. Primary outcomes were movement skill development and objectively measured physical activity. At follow-up, compared with children in the control group, children in the intervention group showed greater improvements in movement skill proficiency, with this improvement statically significant for overall movement skill development (adjust diff. = 2.08, 95% CI 0.76, 3.40; Cohen’s d = 0.47) and significantly greater increases in objectively measured physical activity (counts per minute) during the preschool day (adjust diff. = 110.5, 95% CI 33.6, 187.3; Cohen’s d = 0.46). This study demonstrates that a physical activity program implemented by staff within a preschool setting is feasible, acceptable and potentially efficacious.

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Anna Goodman, James Paskins and Roger Mackett

Background:

Children in primary school are more physically active in the spring/summer. Little is known about the relative contributions of day length and weather, however, or about the underlying behavioral mediators.

Methods:

325 British children aged 8 to 11 wore accelerometers as an objective measure of physical activity, measured in terms of mean activity counts. Children simultaneously completed diaries in which we identified episodes of out-of-home play, structured sports, and active travel. Our main exposure measures were day length, temperature, rainfall, cloud cover, and wind speed.

Results:

Overall physical activity was higher on long days (≥ 14 hours daylight), but there was no difference between short (< 9.5 hours) and medium days (10.2–12.6 hours). The effect of long day length was largest between 5 PM and 8 PM, and persisted after adjusting for rainfall, cloud cover, and wind. Up to half this effect was explained by a greater duration and intensity of out-of-home play on long days; structured sports and active travel were less affected by day length.

Conclusions:

At least above a certain threshold, longer afternoon/evening daylight may have a causal role in increasing child physical activity. This strengthens the public health arguments for daylight saving measures such as those recently under consideration in Britain.

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Alex V. Rowlands

Background:

The total activity volume performed is an overall measure that takes into account the frequency, intensity, and duration of activities performed. The importance of considering total activity volume is shown by recent studies indicating that light physical activity (LPA) and intermittent moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) have health benefits. Accelerometer-derived total activity counts (TAC) per day from a waist-worn accelerometer can serve as a proxy for an individual’s total activity volume. The purpose of this study was to develop age- and gender-specific percentiles for daily TAC, minutes of MVPA, and minutes of LPA in U.S. youth ages 6-19 y.

Methods:

Data from the 2003-2006 NHANES waist-worn accelerometer component were used in this analysis. The sample was composed of youth aged 6-19 years with at least 4 d of ≥10 hr of accelerometer wear time (N = 3698). MVPA was defined using age specific cutpoints as the total number of minutes at ≥4 metabolic equivalents (METs) for youth 6-17 y or minutes with ≥2020 counts for youth 18-19 y. LPA was defined as the total number of minutes between 100 counts and the MVPA threshold. TAC/d, MVPA, and LPA were averaged across all valid days.

Results:

For males in the 50th percentile, the median activity level was 441,431 TAC/d, with 53 min/d of MVPA and 368 min/d of LPA. The median level of activity for females was 234,322 TAC/d, with 32 min/d of MVPA and 355 min/d of LPA.

Conclusion:

Population referenced TAC/d percentiles for U.S. youth ages 6-19 y provide a novel means of characterizing the total activity volume performed by children and adolescents.

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Erik A. Willis, Amanda N. Szabo-Reed, Lauren T. Ptomey, Jeffery J. Honas, Felicia L. Steger, Richard A. Washburn and Joseph E. Donnelly

assessed in the participant using the calorimeter was representative of the group, we compared percent HR max and physical activity (counts/min) in the participants wearing the calorimeter to the study and to not wearing the calorimeter. Each participant completed one session wearing an indirect

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Charity B. Breneman, Christopher E. Kline, Delia West, Xuemei Sui and Xuewen Wang

exercise in postmenopausal women—specifically, wake after sleep onset (WASO), number of awakenings, and activity counts ( Wang & Youngstedt, 2014 ). Therefore, we hypothesized that these sleep outcomes were most likely to be impacted by an acute bout of exercise among postmenopausal women in an exercise

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Katja Krustrup Pedersen, Esben Lykke Skovgaard, Ryan Larsen, Mikkel Stengaard, Søren Sørensen and Kristian Overgaard

, & Holtermann, 2014 ). Accelerometers record accelerations as a person moves, and the output measure extracted from accelerometers (e.g., ActiGraph GT3X+) is typically “activity counts” derived from the collected raw acceleration data. In order to translate activity counts into a meaningful outcome variable