( Doma, Speyer, Leicht, & Cordier, 2017 ). Recently, we adapted and tested the measurement properties of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) to capture neighborhood-based physical activity undertaken in the last week, finding that the self-administered tool had moderate to excellent
Levi Frehlich, Christine Friedenreich, Alberto Nettel-Aguirre, Jasper Schipperijn and Gavin R. McCormack
Greg Reid and Heidi Stanish
Adapted physical activity has debated its professional and disciplinary status, but agreement has not been achieved. As a means of objectively evaluating the field for evidence of discipline status, the contents of APAQ (all issues between 1984-2000) and Clinical Kinesiology (1991-2000) were reviewed and compared against four criteria of a discipline: unique knowledge base, methodology, theoretical framework, and terminology. The review indicated that adapted physical activity has a distinct knowledge base but borrows considerable terminology, research methodology, and theory from allied fields. This is likely a reflection of our history, which has been tied to medicine, kinesiology, physical and special education, and some therapies. We conclude that adapted physical activity is a professional field of study with a crossdisciplinary knowledge base, rather than a discipline in its own right.
John M. Dunn and Jeffrey A. McCubbin
This paper presents data that document the need for additional leadership personnel in adapted physical education. A systematic analysis of the Chronicle of Higher Education, Dissertation Abstracts International, and the Physical Education Gold Book reveals that there is currently a discrepancy between the number of advertised positions in higher education and the number of available personnel to fill these positions. The delivery of appropriate personnel preparation programs in the area of adapted physical education is dependent upon the availability of well trained and qualified personnel. Observations are made on the type of training needed and recommendations for ensuring the availability of a qualified pool of applicants.
Allen W. Burton
Adapted physical education specialists must design and carry out programs for students with movement coordination problems, but intervention strategies for such students are rarely included in adapted physical education textbooks. In response to the lack of information available to practitioners, the purpose of this paper is to provide a conceptual framework for better understanding movement coordination, to briefly review some of the methods used by both researchers and practitioners to assess coordination, and to present some possible strategies for addressing movement coordination deficits. Two types of coordination solutions are discussed—neuromotor and mechanical—and specific activity progressions are given for jumping jacks and overhand throwing.
Barbara Tyree Smith and Grace Goc Karp
This qualitative study explored how students adapt to marginalization in a seventh-grade middle school physical education class in the Pacific North-west. The study’s focus included how marginalized students were excluded within the class and how students, identified as marginalized, adapted to exclusion or temporary acceptance. Marginalized students were those who were unable to be accepted into or remain in a group for a period of time (approximately one week). Data were collected through 60 field observations, over a 14-week time period. Informal and formal interviews were conducted with teachers and students. Three boys and 2 girls were identified as marginalized within the physical education class. Formation of groups and strategies used to exclude marginalized students were found to greatly influence how students became initially marginalized. Once marginalized, students rarely changed their status, although a few were able to use strategies that reduced their status temporarily.
John O’Connor, Ron French, Claudine Sherrill and Garth Babcock
The purpose was to determine whether publications pertaining to adapted physical activity (APA) pedagogy in the core serials from 1988 to 1998 adhere to library science laws. A bibliometric analysis was conducted on 770 articles in 259 serials selected from 4,130 serials initially identified in four databases (Article First, ERIC, Medline, Sport Discus). Results indicated that 1,720 authors have constructed the early APA pedagogy literature. Of these, only 11 contributed four or more articles. The scatter of APA pedagogy literature over four zones, with 4, 15, 64, and 176 journals in the zones, respectively, supports Bradford’s law of scattering. Price’s law was not supported because most authors contributed only one article. Most pedagogy articles (n = 184) were published in Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise, Physician and Sports Medicine, and Palaestra. Graduate education should include exposure to bibliometrics and collaboration with library and information science specialists.
Rebecca K. Lytle and Doug Collier
The purpose was to examine adapted physical education (APE) specialists’ perceptions about consultation as a delivery model for individuals with disabilities. Six APE specialists (4 female, 2 male) from California participated in this phenomenological study. Data came from in-depth individual interviews, field observations, researcher notes, and focus group interactions. Analysis revealed distinct categories related to consultation: definition, contextual factors, effectiveness (benefits, barriers, documentation), competency, training, and consultation model preferences. Consultation interactions varied greatly because of the dynamic nature of the educational environment. The use of consultation was more prevalent with middle and high school students. Adapted physical education consultation occurred on a continuum from proximal to distal, dependent on the degree of interaction between the APE specialist, the general education (GE) teacher, and the student. The effectiveness of consultation was dependent upon the GE teacher’s attitude and the APE specialist’s communication skills and competencies.
Pilvikki Heikinaro-Johansson, Claudine Sherrill, Ronald French and Heikki Huuhka
The purpose of this research was to develop and test an adapted physical education consultant model to assist regular elementary school classroom teachers to include children with special needs into regular physical education. The consultation model consisted of (a) Level 1, conducting a needs assessment, (b) Level 2, designing/implementing the program, and (c) Level 3, evaluating the program. The model was tested in two communities in Finland using the intensive and the limited consulting approaches. Data collection methods included videotaped observations of teacher and students, interviews, dialogue at interdisciplinary team meetings, and journals. Results are presented as case studies, which describe the process and product over a 2-month period of model implementation. Analysis of data indicate that classroom teachers, paraprofessionals, and students benefited from the consultant model. The adapted physical education consultant model appears to be a viable approach in facilitating the integration of children with special needs.
Greg Reid, Marcel Bouffard and Catherine MacDonald
Professional practice guided by the best research evidence is a usually referred to as evidence-based practice. The aim of the present paper is to describe five fundamental beliefs of adapted physical activity practices that should be considered in an 8-step research model to create evidence-based research in adapted physical activity. The five beliefs are individualization, critical thinking, self-determination, program effectiveness, and multifactor complexity. The research model includes conceptualize the problem, conduct research on the process of the problem, conceptualize and specify the intervention, evaluate intervention outcomes, evaluate intervention processes, determine person-by-treatment interactions, determine context-dependent limitations, and investigate factors related to intervention adoption maintenance. The eight steps are explained with reference to two research programs that used a randomized control group design.
Natalie Skinner and Neil Brewer
The influence of negative emotions such as anxiety on athletes’ preparation and performance has been studied extensively. The focus of this review is on more adaptive approaches to competition such as the experience of positive emotion and beneficial perceptions of emotion. Evidence on the antecedents and adaptive consequences of positive emotions is reviewed, and implications for research and practice in a sport context are suggested. We focus on the cognitive appraisal of challenge as a significant antecedent of both positive emotion and beneficial perceptions of emotion. A theoretical model of beneficial and harmful perceptions of emotion is presented which incorporates appraisals of challenge, coping expectancies, and valence (positive vs. negative) of emotion. Research that supports the model is reviewed, and implications for research, coaching, and training in the sport context are suggested.