The effect of destination advertising and sport event media (advertising and telecast) were compared experimentally on nine dimensions of destination image and on intention to visit the host destination. Participants' images of Australia's Gold Coast were collected in the United States (long-haul market) and New Zealand (short-haul market) following exposure to one of eight media conditions. The event telecast, event advertising, and destination advertising each affected different dimensions of destination image. There was a wider array of effects in the American market than in the New Zealand market. Some effects of each form of media were negative, with event media having a negative impact on participants' image of the destination's natural environment. Destination image was significantly related to intention to visit the host destination, but the dimensions that affected intention to visit were different for the two countries. Among the New Zealand sample, the dimensions of destination image affected by event media and the destination advertisement were not those impacting intention to visit.
Laurence Chalip, B. Christine Green and Brad Hill
Douglas M. Carroll
The emergence of single-sport cable channels represents a refinement of the allsports cable-channel concept and a new trend in the televised-sport marketplace. This study analyzed the contents of 24 continuous hours of programming on Golf Channel and tabulated the number and types of advertisements to better understand commercial programming strategies and practices. Commercial programming elements such as spot commercials, spot promotions, sponsored graphics, pop-up promotions, mentions, infomercials, and public service announcements were identified. In addition, commercial programming during live tournament coverage was compared with golf telecasts at 2 broadcast networks and an all-sports cable channel. The study measured 3 indicators of the amount of advertising presented in the telecasts: the number of commercial minutes per hour, the number of advertisements per hour, and the average duration of spot commercials. Results of the study were interpreted in terms of advertising clutter.
Beth A. Cianfrone, Galen T. Trail, James J. Zhang and Richard J. Lutz
Sport video games (SVGs) are a popular form of sport media and sponsorship, and advertising in SVGs is increasingly common. This study assessed the effectiveness of SVG in-game advertisements in 3 consumption domains: cognitive, affective, and conative. An experimental study was designed with 89 gamers randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions: (a) experimental, playing an SVG with advertisements, or (b) control, playing an SVG without advertisements. Consumption background and identification level were incorporated as covariates to ensure group equivalence. Participants responded to a questionnaire measuring brand awareness, brand attitude, and purchase intentions. MANCOVA revealed that after controlling for the effect of covariate variables, the experimental group had a significantly (p < .05) greater mean brand-awareness score than the control group. Mean brand-attitude and purchase-intention scores were not significantly (p > .05) different between groups. The findings indicated that SVG in-game advertising was effective in creating awareness.
Lance Kinney and Stephen R. McDaniel
Event sponsorship has become a multibillion dollar industry (Levin, 1993), yet little theory-driven research exists exploring sponsorship effects (Cunningham & Taylor, 1994), Keller (1993) noted that customer-based brand equity is the appropriate goal of all elements of the marketing mix, including promotions such as sponsorship. The effectiveness of these promotions may be observed through what Keller terms “direct measures pitting known brands against unknown or fictitious brands.” This study uses an experimental design employing attitude-toward-the-ad (AAD) as a direct measure of sponsorship support, advertising impact on attitude-toward-the-brand (AH), and purchase intention (PI) for official sponsors and ambush marketers in the fast food and credit card product categories of the 1994 Winter Olympic Games. Ambush marketers are those companies that use advertising to make it appear as if they are associated with the Games without purchasing official sponsorship rights (Sandier & Shani, 1989). Based on these results, there appeared to be no competitive advantage for official sponsors in terms of AAD's influence on PL These findings suggest that leveraging a sponsorship with advertising does not always ensure competitive advantage in terms of building customer-based brand equity.
George R. Milne, Mark A. McDonald, William A. Button and Rajiv Kashyap
This research examines the competitive niche positions of 36 sports and fitness activities reported in an American Sports Activities 1993 tracking study. The article discusses the advantages of viewing competition from an ecological niche perspective and presents a measure of competitive resource overlap (CRO) used in marketing for measuring niche breadth and niche overlap. The empirical study presents an intuitive mapping of the sports market and calculates the niche breadth and niche overlap for each sport. Managerial implications for sporting goods manufacturers, advertising agencies, corporate sponsors, fitness consultants, and other professionals interested in participant sports markets are given.
Marcia S. Marx, Jiska Cohen-Mansfield and Jack M. Guralnik
The article describes the process of identifying 100 community-dwelling elderly adults at risk for physical disability, yet not functionally disabled, for participation in a research project to develop appropriate exercise programs for at-risk elderly. Over a period of 14 months, initial contact was made with 941 older adults, 11% of whom (101 people) were eligible for and willing to complete all stages of the study protocol. The most successful recruitment strategies were a mass mailing followed by a telephone call and advertising in a newspaper with a large circulation (rather than a local paper). Aspects of the recruitment and retention of study participants are discussed.
William A. Sutton
This paper recommends an approach to the development and implementation of marketing plans with regard to intercollegiate athletic programs The thoughts expressed herein are based upon marketing theory and research advertising, and promotional management principles commonly used in mainstream business and industry but often overlooked in sport and athletics The author provides a series of steps to serve as guidelines for the sport manager/athletic director. By incorporating the theories and ideas set forth in this paper, the sports practitioner would be better equipped to develop a marketing plan applicable to the uniqueness and requirements of his or her particular institution or service area.
Christine M. Brooks
Recently the International Beach Volleyball Federation (FIVB) implemented a uniform rule that many protesters felt was designed to use the female players as sex objects to attract an audience. In marketing terms, the FIVB implemented a sexual appeal strategy to market their sport. This is only one example of the use of sex and eroticism to promote a sport. There are many others including cheerleaders, fitness programming, bodybuilding, men’s professional soccer and Australian Rules football. Sex in advertising has been a long-debated subject and very little is known about its lasting effects. Sexual appeals play to the sexual survival motive that consists of three elements: sexual gender, sexual impulse and sexual inhibition. Whenever any of these elements appear in advertising, the general goal is to arouse desire for a product. In this paper I examine the strategic purpose for using sexual appeals, the manner in which they impact target audiences, and the potential consequences of this marketing approach. It is clear from the literature that sexual appeals draw attention to the sport using it. However, this attention occurs at the risk of target audiences perceiving the athlete as poor quality, as a negative symbol, or as something less that a true athlete. Sponsors must also worry about being associated with sports that use sex appeals because if the spectator is irritated then this irritation could transfer to the sponsor’s products.
Gonzalo A. Bravo, Doyeon Won and Mauricio Ferreira
Trade-offs in consumer choice become central to understanding how choice actually occurs. This study examines the trade-offs sport management students are willing to make in order to select the program of their choice. Sport management undergraduate students (N = 498) participated in a full-profile conjoint experiment asking them to rate 18 program-choice scenarios resulted from the factorial design of seven attributes and nineteen levels. Results at the aggregated level indicated that program environment was the most important attribute in choosing a sport management graduate program, followed by program reputation, graduate assistantship, cost/tuition, NCAA affiliation, program length, and location. Given these results, a sensitivity analysis illustrated that students were willing to make trade-offs among program characteristics, particularly pay more for a program with better reputation. Results from the current study are valuable and informative for sport management programs for setting market boundaries and selecting what to promote when advertising to attract prospective students.
Brenda Lindstrom, Karen Chad, Nigel Ashworth, Bobbi Dunphy, Elizabeth Harrison, Bruce Reeder, Sandi Schultz, Suzanne Sheppard and Kori Fisher
Engaging sedentary individuals in physical activity (PA) is challenging and problematic for research requiring large, representative samples. For research projects to be carried out in reasonable timeframes, optimum recruitment methods are needed. Effective recruitment strategies involving PA interventions for older adults have not been determined.
To compare the effectiveness of recruitment strategies for a PA intervention.
Two recruitment strategies, print media and personal contact, targeted health-care professionals and the general public.
The strategies generated 581 inquiries; 163 were randomized into the study. Advertising to the general public via print materials and group presentations accounted for 78% of the total inquiries. Referrals from physicians and health-care professionals resulted in 22% of the inquiries.
Mass distribution of print material to the general public, enhanced by in-person contact, was the most effective recruitment strategy. These findings suggest various recruitment strategies targeting the general population should be employed.