parameters in predicting agility test performance . Int J Sports Phys Ther . 2017 ; 12 ( 5 ): 728 – 736 . PubMed ID: 29181250 doi:10.26603/ijspt20170728 34. Andrade DC , Manzo O , Beltrán AR , et al . Kinematic and neuromuscular measures of intensity during plyometric jumps . [published online
Helmi Chaabene, Yassine Negra, Jason Moran, Olaf Prieske, Senda Sammoud, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo and Urs Granacher
Edited by Martin A. Fees
Peter Düking, Dennis-Peter Born and Billy Sperlich
To determine the reliability, usefulness, and validity of 3 different change-of-direction tests on a SpeedCourt (SCCODT) in team-sport players.
For reliability and usefulness, 30 players (16 female and 14 male; age 19 ± 3 y, height 169 ± 30 cm, body mass 70 ± 11 kg) performed 3 SCCODTs differing in duration (7–45 s) on 3 occasions 1 wk apart. The total sprint times (TT) and time to change direction (TCD) were analyzed for each SCCODT. For validity, 14 players performed the Illinois Agility Test (IAT) and 505 test on a separate occasion.
TT for all SCCODTs is reliable (ICC > .79, CV < 5%), useful (TE < SWC0.5), and valid (IAT r > .71, P < .05; 505 test r > .54, P < .05). SCCODT variable TCD may be useful (TE = SWC0.5) but shows limited reliability with ICC >.65 and a CV >5%.
All SCCODTs are reliable, useful, and valid to detect moderate performance changes regarding TT, with limited reliability for TCD. The quality of assessment improves when players are well familiarized with the SCCODT.
Marc R. Bernier
Column-editor : Jeff G. Konin
Giancarlo Condello, Kevin Schultz and Antonio Tessitore
The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between straight-sprint and change-of-direction performance. Total sprinting time and split time at 5 m were collected from 44 college football players during a 15-m straight sprint (SS15m) and a 15-m zigzag sprint with two 60° changes of direction (COD15m). Differences in sprinting time between COD15m and SS15m and between COD5m and SS5m were expressed as percentage of decrement at 5 m and 15 m (Δ%5m and Δ%15m). Significant and high correlations emerged between SS15m and COD15m (r = .86, P < .0001), SS5m and SS15m (r = .92, P < .0001), SS5m and COD5m (r = .92, P < .0001), and COD5m and COD15m (r = .71, P < .0001). Δ%5m and Δ%15m showed a range of 1.2–30.0% and 34.9–59.4%, respectively. These results suggested how straight-sprint and change-of-direction performance are similar abilities in college football players, in particular when a smaller angle of the change of direction is considered. Moreover, it seems necessary to have athletes undergo tests that mimic the demands of football game, which is characterized by sprint on short distances and with changes of direction.
Olivia R. Barber, Christopher Thomas, Paul A. Jones, John J. McMahon and Paul Comfort
To determine the reliability of the 505 change-of-direction (COD) test performed with both a stationary and a flying start.
Fifty-two female netball players (age 23.9 ± 5.4 y, height 169.9 ± 3.3 cm, body mass 65.2 ± 4.6 kg) performed 6 trials of the 505 COD test, 3 with a flying start and 3 with a stationary start, once per week over a 4-wk period to determine within- and between-sessions reliability.
Testing revealed high within-session reliability for the stationary start (ICC = .96–.97) and for the flying start (ICC = .90–.97). Similarly, both the stationary start (ICC = .965) and the flying start (ICC = .951) demonstrated high reliability between sessions, although repeated-measures analysis of variance (P < .001) revealed learning effects between sessions for both tests. Performances stabilized on day 2 for the static start and on day 3 for the flying start.
The 505 COD test is a reliable test in female netball players, with either a stationary or flying start. Smallest detectable differences of 3.91% and 3.97% for the stationary start and the flying start, respectively, allow practitioners to interpret whether changes in time taken to complete the 505 COD test reflect genuine improvements in performance or are measurement errors. It is suggested that 1 d of familiarization testing be performed for the stationary start and 2 d of familiarization for the flying start, to minimize learning effects.
Gordon J. Bell, Gary D. Snydmiller and Alex B. Game
Twenty-four National Hockey League (NHL) goaltenders were observed to determine the types and frequency of their movements during actual games. A secondary purpose was to compare these movements across the 3 periods of game play and between 2 NHL seasons (2003–04 and 2005–06) as a result of several rule changes between seasons. The mean (± SD) age, height, body mass, and years of NHL experience of the goaltenders were 30 ± 4 y, 85.4 ± 4.4 kg, 184.0 ± 3.8 cm, 6.6 ± 4.0 y, respectively. The mean (± SD) number of times and type of movements used during a game in order of most frequent were vertical movement (43.7 ± 10.3), moving laterally (39.7 ± 12.7), moving into full-butterfly position (32.1), anterior–posterior movement in front of goal crease (31.5 ± 11.5), skating out of the goal area to play the puck (19.7 ± 6.3), and using a half butterfly on a single leg pad (left = 5.2 ± 1.9, right = 6.4 ± 2.1). Goaltenders played the puck less frequently during the final period of the game than during the first 2 periods and more frequently between the 2 different NHL seasons after certain rule changes. It was concluded that NHL goaltenders move most frequently vertically, laterally, and out of the net to play the puck. In addition, goaltenders moved out of the goal area to play the puck less often in the third period but more frequently after several league rule changes designed to reduce this movement.
Jason Brumitt, Bryan C. Heiderscheit, Robert C. Manske, Paul Niemuth, Alma Mattocks and Mitchell J. Rauh
The Lower-Extremity Functional Test (LEFT) has been used to assess readiness to return to sport after a lowerextremity injury. Current recommendations suggest that women should complete the LEFT in 135 s (average; range 120–150 s) and men should complete the test in 100 s (average; range 90–125 s). However, these estimates are based on limited data and may not be reflective of college athletes. Thus, additional assessment, including normative data, of the LEFT in sport populations is warranted.
To examine LEFT times based on descriptive information and off-season training habits in NCAA Division III (DIII) athletes. In addition, this study prospectively examined the LEFT’s ability to discriminate sport-related injury occurrence.
189 DIII college athletes (106 women, 83 men) from 15 teams.
Main Outcome Measures:
LEFT times, preseason questionnaire, and time-loss injuries during the sport season.
Men completed the LEFT (105 ± 9 s) significantly faster than their female counterparts (117 ± 10 s) (P < .0001). Female athletes who reported >3–5 h/wk of plyometric training during the off-season had significantly slower LEFT scores than those who performed ≤3 h/wk of plyometric training (P = .03). The overall incidence of a lower-quadrant (LQ) time-loss injury for female athletes was 4.5/1000 athletic exposures (AEs) and 3.7/1000 AEs for male athletes. Female athletes with slower LEFT scores (≥118 s) experienced a higher rate of LQ time-loss injuries than those with faster LEFT scores (≤117 s) (P = .03).
Only off-season plyometric training practices seem to affect LEFT score times among female athletes. Women with slower LEFT scores are more likely to be injured than those with faster LEFT scores. Injury rates in men were not influenced by performance on the LEFT.
Keeron J. Stone, Jonathan L. Oliver, Michael G. Hughes, Michael R. Stembridge, Daniel J. Newcombe and Robert W. Meyers
Existing procedures for the simulation of soccer match play fail to incorporate multidirectional and repeated-sprint activities, even though these movements are considered fundamental to match play. In the current study, selected physiological and performance responses were assessed during an adapted version of an existing soccer simulation protocol. Mean heart rates of 163 ± 14 beats·min–1, mean blood lactates of 4.9 ± 2.3 mmol·L-1 and decrements in single-sprint and repeated-sprint performances were observed. The presented adaptations to an existing soccer simulation protocol better reflect the movement characteristics as well as the physiological and performance responses of soccer match play.
Sean J. Maloney, Anthony N. Turner and Stuart Miller
It has previously been shown that a loaded warm-up may improve power performances. We examined the acute effects of loaded dynamic warm-up on change of direction speed (CODS), which had not been previously investigated. Eight elite badminton players participated in three sessions during which they performed vertical countermovement jump and CODS tests before and after undertaking the dynamic warm-up. The three warm-up conditions involved wearing a weighted vest (a) equivalent to 5% body mass, (b) equivalent to 10% body mass, and (c) a control where a weighted vest was not worn. Vertical jump and CODS performances were then tested at 15 seconds and 2, 4, and 6 minutes post warm-up. Vertical jump and CODS significantly improved following all warm-up conditions (P < .05). Post warm-up vertical jump performance was not different between conditions (P = .430). Post warm-up CODS was significantly faster following the 5% (P = .02) and 10% (P < .001) loaded conditions compared with the control condition. In addition, peak CODS test performances, independent of recovery time, were faster than the control condition following the 10% loaded condition (P = .012). In conclusion, the current study demonstrates that a loaded warm-up augmented CODS, but not vertical jump performance, in elite badminton players.