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Fabiana Medeiros de Almeida Silva and Aldemir Smith Menezes

, regardless of achieving the recommended levels of physical activity, excessive time spent in sedentary behavior promotes deleterious health effects, such as excess body weight, 6 poor eating habits, 7 abuse of alcohol or smoking, 8 psychosocial stress, 9 risk of coronary events, and mortality from all

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Diego Munguia-Izquierdo, Carmen Mayolas-Pi, Carlos Peñarrubia-Lozano, Federico Paris-Garcia, Javier Bueno-Antequera, Miguel Angel Oviedo-Caro and Alejandro Legaz-Arrese

have been associated with improvements in psychosocial health, 6 obesity, 7 fitness, 8 health-related quality of life, 9 sleep, 10 diet, 11 and alcohol and tobacco consumption 12 and may predict improved health and behaviors in adulthood 13 ; therefore, they play a relevant role in the

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Alessandra Madia Mantovani, Manoel Carlos Spiguel de Lima, Luis Alberto Gobbo, Enio Ricardo Vaz Ronque, Marcelo Romanzini, Bruna Camilo Turi-Lynch, Jamile Sanches Codogno and Rômulo Araújo Fernandes

white and others (black, Asian, and Native Brazilian)]. Data regarding smoking and alcohol consumption were also collected by face-to-face interview. Smoking was classified as: (1) no or (2) yes, and alcohol consumption was classified as: (1) no, (2) 2–4 times per month, or (3) more than twice a week

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Yan Shi, Wendy Yajun Huang, Jane Jie Yu, Sinead Sheridan, Cindy Hui-Ping Sit and Stephen Heung-Sang Wong

anterior aspect of the right thigh. In the first 3 schools, the Tegaderm was directly attached to the skin, whereas in the other 10 schools, an alcohol pad was used to wipe the skin before attachment. This modification was introduced after participants from the first 3 schools reported inadvertent removals

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Frank B. Butts

Martens, O’Connor, & Beck (2006) reported problematic drinking on college campuses to be a considerable concern and that athletes have more binge drinking episodes and alcohol-related problems than non-athlete students. Wechsler, Davenport, Dowdall, Grossman, & Zanakos (1997) reported that athletes in NCAA Division I have the most alcohol related issues as evidenced by 29% of male and 24% of female athletes reported binge drinking three or more times in a two week period. To address this concern, this study incorporated a 12-month, NCAA (2008) Choices alcohol responsibility program at a NCAA II university which involved peer mentoring, education, and alcohol-free activities. The results indicated a significant decline in binge drinking and associated problems among athletes after treatment.

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Marina Galante, Rose Marie Ward and Robert Weinberg

Weight-conscious drinking is the use of disordered eating behaviors in anticipation of or as compensation for calories consumed during alcohol use. The aim of the current study is to assess the relationship between weight-conscious drinking, athletic status, and sport type. Participants were 295 college students (82 male and 213 female; Mage = 20.10) from a midsized Midwestern university. Participants completed an online survey that included items assessing alcohol consumption, the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index (RAPI), the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), and the Compensatory Eating and Behaviors in Response to Alcohol Consumption Scale (CEBRACS). In comparison with nonathletes, student-athletes had lower EAT-26 and CEBRACS scores; RAPI scores did not differ between the two groups. Lean-sport athletes differed concerning CEBRACS diet/exercise subscales in comparison with nonlean-sport athletes.

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Melissa Evans, Robert Weinberg and Allen Jackson

The purpose of the present investigation was to explore the psychological factors associated with drug use in a group of college athletes and to compare athlete drug users to nonusers. A questionnaire was given to male (N=377) and female (N=167) Division I college athletes asking them about their use or nonuse of drugs. Frequency, intensity, and duration of use/nonuse of seven drug categories (alcohol, amphetamines, anabolic steroids, barbiturates, cocaine, hallucinogens, and marijuana) were used to divide subjects into categories of high user and low user/nonuser on each of the drugs. Dependent measures included the Profile of Mood States (POMS), the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Test, and questions assessing the stressors athletes experience in their dual role as student-athletes. A MANOVA was conducted to distinguish significant differences between high and low drug users on the dependent variables. Results indicated that alcohol, the most widely used drug, produced the most significant results. Specifically, discriminant analysis revealed high alcohol users (75th percentile) had significantly higher scores on the POMS anger, fatigue, and vigor subscales than did the low alcohol users (25th percentile). In addition, females in the alcohol low user/nonuser group felt more pressure from coaches to perform well than did females in the high user group; for males, the reverse was true. Future research recommendations include using larger subject pools and athletes of different ages and skill levels.

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Brad Donohue, Michelle Pitts, Yulia Gavrilova, Ashley Ayarza and Kristina I. Cintron

Substance abuse in athletes is both prevalent and dangerous, leading to its international recognition as a public health concern. In recent controlled trials, behavioral prevention programs have been shown to reduce alcohol use in collegiate student athletes who are at-risk for alcohol abuse, with outcomes appearing to be enhanced when family members are prescriptively involved. However, no interventions have been found to decrease alcohol or drug use frequency in controlled trials involving athletes who have been diagnosed with substance abuse, and no prescribed clinical interventions for substance abuse have been tailored to accommodate the unique needs of competitive athletes. As an initial step in this development, we review an evidenced-supported behavioral treatment program modified for use with athletes. Optimizing the support of significant others, this innovative treatment approach comprehensively targets multiple areas of mental health while emphasizing cultural enlightenment. Recommendations are offered, including the great need for controlled treatment outcome research specific to substance abuse in athletes.

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Eric A. Storch, Jason B. Storch, Adrienne H. Kovacs, Aubree Okun and Eric Welsh

Although there has been little research examining religiosity in athletes, recent evidence suggests that it may play an important role in the lives of some athletes. The present study investigated the relationship of intrinsic religiosity to substance use in intercollegiate athletes. The Intrinsic Religiosity subscale of the Duke Religion Index, the Alcohol Problems subscale of the Personality Assessment Inventory, and two questions assessing marijuana and other drug use were completed by 105 varsity athletes. Findings indicated that intrinsic religiosity was inversely associated with alcohol, marijuana, and other drug use. Implications of these findings for sport practitioners are discussed.

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Ben Desbrow, Daniel Murray and Michael Leveritt

Purpose:

To investigate the effect of manipulating the alcohol and sodium content of beer on fluid restoration following exercise.

Method:

Seven male volunteers exercised on a cycle ergometer until 1.96 ± 0.25% body mass (mean± SD) was lost. Participants were then randomly allocated a different beer to consume on four separate occasions. Drinks included a low-alcohol beer (2.3% ABV; LightBeer), a low-alcohol beer with 25 mmol×L−1 of added sodium (LightBeer+25), a full-strength beer (4.8% ABV; Beer), or a full-strength beer with 25 mmol×L−1 of added sodium (Beer+25). Volumes consumed were equivalent to 150% of body mass loss during exercise and were consumed over a 1h period. Body mass and urine samples were obtained before and hourly for 4 hr after beverage consumption.

Results:

Significantly enhanced net fluid balance was achieved following the LightBeer+25 trial (–1.02 ± 0.35 kg) compared with the Beer (–1.59 ± 0.32 kg) and Beer+25 (–1.64 ± 0.28 kg) treatments. Accumulated urine output was significantly lower in the LightBeer+25 trial (1477 ± 485 ml) compared with the Beer+25 (2101 ± 482 ml) and Beer (2175 ± 372 ml) trials.

Conclusion:

A low alcohol beer with added sodium offers a potential compromise between a beverage with high social acceptance and one which avoids the exacerbated fluid losses observed when consuming full strength beer.