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Maya Maor

), or are rather cosmetic changes that only fortify gender hierarchy by making it harder to identify ( Bridges & Pascoe, 2014 ; Matthews, 2014 ). The present study employs the status of adolescent boys in mostly adult martial arts groups in Israel as a case study to examine the meaning of these changes

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Alexander J. Bedard, Kevin A. Bigelman, Lynn R. Fielitz, Jeffrey D. Coelho, William B. Kobbe, Renard O. Barone, Nicholas H. Gist and John E. Palmer

Combative physical education classes, such as boxing, grappling, wrestling, and martial arts, offer many positive benefits to students and institutions ( Brown & Johnson, 2000 ; Winkle & Ozmun, 2003 ). These activities develop basic motor patterns, improve many aspects of physical fitness, instill

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Joseph J. Matthews, Edward N. Stanhope, Mark S. Godwin, Matthew E.J. Holmes and Guilherme G. Artioli

weight loss (RWL) and subsequent rapid weight gain (RWG) in the days preceding the event. Making weight has been documented in mixed martial arts (MMA), boxing, judo, Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ), karate, Muay Thai, taekwondo, and wrestling ( Artioli et al., 2010b ; Brito et al., 2012 ; Matthews

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T. Christopher Greenwell, Jason M. Simmons, Meg Hancock, Megan Shreffler and Dustin Thorn

February 23, 2013, was a historic date for women’s mixed martial arts (MMA). For the first time in history, two female fighters not only competed in an Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) event, Ronda Rousey and Liz Carmouche were also the headline attraction for UFC 157. Ironically, this bout

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Sheri J. Brock, Jared A. Russell, Brenna Cosgrove and Jessica Richards

disciplines. Traditional course offerings include individual/team sports, wellness, stress reduction, aquatics, martial arts, fitness, and water sports. As a secondary goal, the PAWP affords our GTAs the opportunity to acquire and develop relevant skills, conceptual knowledge, and experiences that will

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T. Bettina Cornwell, Steffen Jahn, Hu Xie and Wang Suk Suh

is converging evidence to suggest that emotion enhances memory for information that is relevant to currently active goals ( Levine & Edelstein, 2009 ). Considering that most people at a sports, arts, or entertainment event would have the goal of attending and being an audience member for some if not

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Torunn Bodin and Egil W. Martinsen

Physical activity is associated with an antidepressant effect in clinical depression. Self-efficacy is one mechanism proposed to explain this effect. In this study we compared the changes in mood following exercise sessions with high and stable self-efficacy (stationary bike exercise) to exercise sessions with initially low but increasing self-efficacy (martial arts). The experimental design incorporated repeated measures and counter-balancing. Twelve clinically depressed participants completed 45-min exercise sessions consisting of stationary bike use and martial arts. A waiting control condition of 30 minutes was conducted before each exercise session. During martial arts, statistically significant increases in positive affect, reductions in negative affect and state anxiety, and increased self-efficacy were observed. During the stationary bike exercise no statistically significant changes were found. The results indicate that an increase in self-efficacy may be important for mood benefits to occur.

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Paul Baar and Theo Wubbels

The majority of research on children’s peer aggression has focused exclusively on the school context. Very few studies have investigated peer aggression in sports clubs. The prevalence and stability of peer aggression, prosocial behavior, and resource control strategies for children participating in three types of sports (martial arts, contact, and noncontact sports) were examined in two contexts: the sports club and the elementary school. We distinguished aggressive children with (i.e., Machiavellians) and without prosocial tendencies (i.e., coercive-aggressive children). Self-reports about experiences in the two contexts where gathered from 1,425 Dutch elementary school students (717 boys and 708 girls, fourth to sixth grade, mean age 11.25 years) who were participating in a sports club. We found roles for resource control strategies to be rather stable across contexts. The findings did not provide support for the “enhancement” assumption in these contexts with regard to martial arts participants.

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Holly R. Huddleston, Vaughn Barry and Jennifer L. Caputo

Background:

The purpose was to characterize energy expenditure (EE) during academic subjects and activities during an elementary school day.

Methods:

Children in 2nd to 4th grades (N = 33) wore the SenseWear Armband (SWA) for 5 school days to measure EE. Teachers’ logs were compared with SWA data to extract information about EE throughout the day. Energy expenditure was also compared among grades.

Results:

After controlling for body mass, grade level was not a significant predictor of average daily caloric expenditure, F (2, 17.58) = .29, P = .75, ω2 = .05. When comparing activities throughout the day, relative rates of EE differed significantly, Wilks’ F (7, 23) = 52.2, P = .00, ηp 2 = .94, with PE and recess having higher EE. When academic subjects were compared (math, science, language arts), relative rate of EE was also significantly different, Wilks’ F (2, 30) = 4.31, P = .02, ηp 2 = .22. For the full sample, relative rate EE was higher in science than in language arts.

Conclusions:

The school day provides opportunity for EE for children. These data support the potential benefit of active instruction in language arts as a method to increase school day EE.

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Stephanie J. Hanrahan

A group of students from the Aboriginal Centre for the Performing Arts participated in a mental skills training program that focused on goal setting, self-confidence development, and team building. There were 13 two-hour sessions held over a 20-week period. The participants, cultural issues, and the basic structure of the program are described. The author’s observations regarding competition, displays of affection, collective values, and the importance of family and nature are provided. The participants qualitatively evaluated the program. Conclusions related to group process, program structure, and diversity are presented. These conclusions should be of value in terms of shaping future group mental skills training programs.