The stress and coping theory posits that in the face of negative consumption situations, individuals experience a sequential process: primary appraisal, secondary appraisal, and behavioral outcomes. Drawing on the theory, the purpose of the study is to test (a) the mediating effects of coping strategies (i.e., secondary appraisal) between the severity of spectator dysfunctional behavior (SDB; i.e., primary appraisal) and revisit intention and (b) the moderating effects of self-construal (i.e., interdependence vs. independence). Across two studies, using a survey experiment (Study 1) and a repeated-measures survey experiment (Study 2), the findings indicate that coping strategies (i.e., active, expressive, and denial coping) significantly and uniquely mediated the relationship between the severity of SDB (high vs. low) and revisit intention. Furthermore, in responding to highly severe SDB, spectators with interdependent self-construal engaged more in active and expressive coping, and less in denial coping and revisit intention than those with independent self-construal. Overall, the present study highlights (a) the importance of coping strategies for a clearer understanding of the SDB–revisit intention relationship and (b) a boundary condition of self-construal for the influences of SDB on coping strategies and revisit intention.
Kyungyeol (Anthony) Kim, Kevin K. Byon and Paul M. Pedersen
Passion drives sport consumption, but we lack valid relevant measures of passion. The results of two studies provide evidence of a reliable and valid multiple-item passion scale that may be used in the study of sports-related consumption behavior. In Study 1 a multi-item fan passion scale was compared with established social identification fan classification scales to provide evidence of discriminant and predictive validity. Because the passion scale outperformed other relevant fan classification measures, in Study 2 the fan passion scale was compared with current single-item measurement practices employed by National Football League and Major League Baseball teams, and some academics, to classify fans. Findings confirmed the veracity of the multi-item passion measure over categorical and interval fan avidity measures used by leagues and syndicated research providers. Taken together, the studies validate an accurate measure of fan passion that may be used to segment and predict fan behaviors, including consumption of traditional media (television, radio, news, and the team’s website) and consumption of the team’s official social media outlets.
B. David Tyler and Joe Cobbs
Rivalry is ubiquitous across sports, yet the representation and specification of rivalry varies widely. Such discrepancy poses problems when distinguishing between multiple out-groups and when employing rivalry to explain related questions such as demand for sport consumption. In this paper, we critically examine the many differing conceptions of rivalry and to discern properties of rivalry across different sports. We survey college football fans (N = 5,304) to empirically test the exclusivity, scale, and symmetry of rivalry; then, we replicate the study twice in the context of professional sports (1,649 National Football League fans; 1,435 National Hockey League fans). Results consistently indicate that fans perceive multiple rivals (nonexclusive), rivalry intensity varies among rivals (continuous in scale), and opposing fans rarely share equivalent perceptions of the rivalry (bidirectional). Accordingly, we develop and test a parsimonious 100-point rivalry allocation measure that specifies these three properties of rivalry.
Galen T. Trail, Hyungil Kwon and Dean F. Anderson
It has been determined that advertising tends to mitigate a negative trial effect among low-product-involvement consumers when it precedes the negative trial but has no impact on beliefs and attitudes when the trial is positive. This case study investigated the effect of advertisements on sport consumers’ satisfaction and conative loyalty in spectating sport. Specifically, the authors examined spectators who were novice attendees at an intercollegiate men’s basketball game (N = 206). Two groups (home team winning, home team losing) were investigated to determine whether advertising mitigated the negative product–trial effect (losing). The results indicated that although advertising did not mitigate losing specific to immediate satisfaction with the game outcome or decision to attend, it did seem to mitigate losing on conative loyalty.
Juliana Souza de Oliveira, Catherine Sherrington, Louise Rowling and Anne Tiedemann
associated with more frequent Strong Seniors class attendance. Methods Study Design and Participants We used a self-report survey and conducted a mixed-methods study among current Strong Seniors program participants. Study recruitment flyers were circulated via an e-mail list and also posted on a
Hojun Sung, Brian M. Mills and Michael Mondello
, advertising, and sponsorships, with broadcasting rights making up a much larger proportion of overall revenues than ever before ( Tran, 2017 ). However, given the historical reliance on attendance to both generate revenues and engage fans in the excitement of the event, questions arise with respect to the
Hunter Fujak, Stephen Frawley, Heath McDonald and Stephen Bush
similarities and differences. Baker et al. ( 2016 ) also successfully measured double jeopardy in a sport setting, utilizing STH data to track AFL attendance across the 10 Melbourne-based clubs. Notably, the Dirichlet model was inaccurate at predicting 100% loyalty rates, indicating one potential way that
Cindy Lynn Salazar-Collier, Belinda Reininger, Rose Gowen, Arturo Rodriguez and Anna Wilkinson
attendees meeting PA guidelines via CycloBia event engagement. The third aim is to examine the association between prior event attendance and other sociodemographic factors (sex, age, and Hispanic ethnicity), and meeting adequate PA at the event per PA guidelines. Methods Participants and Procedures With
Nadège Levallet, Norm O’Reilly, Elizabeth Wanless, Michael Naraine, Ethan Alkon and Wade Longmire
dream became reality. She was finally named Athletic Director at a university in the highest resource tier of the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS). Five months later, Mary was already facing one of the toughest challenges of her career: resolving declining home game attendance. Both football and men
Allyson Brothers and Manfred Diehl
feasibility of the program, as measured by attendance and completion rates as well as anonymous participant feedback. Second, we examined the changes in the key outcome variables throughout the program at three measurement occasions: Pretest, posttest, and delayed posttest. Specifically, we tested for change