This article presents the development and validation of the Aging Stereotypes and Exercise Scale (ASES), which measures different dimensions of aging stereotypes in the exercise domain. Drawing on past research on older adults’ perceived barriers to exercise, these dimensions include stereotypes about positive and negative exercise outcomes for older adults and about older adults’ psychological barriers to exercise (i.e., lack of self-efficacy and motivation). Four studies involving 714 participants examined the factorial structure and invariance, temporal stability, and external validity of the scale. The results supported a 3-factor model that was invariant across age. Age differences in stereotype content appeared, with older adults holding more positive stereotypes than younger adults. Also as predicted, the more older adults endorsed negative stereotypes, the lower their physical self-worth, self-rated health, and subjective age. Last, responses to the ASES appeared to be stable over a 6-wk period.
Aïna Chalabaev, Mélanie Emile, Karine Corrion, Yannick Stephan, Corentin Clément-Guillotin,, Christian Pradier and Fabienne d’Arripe-Longueville
Jill A. Nolan, Christa L. Lilly, Janie M. Leary, Wesley Meeteer, Hugh D. Campbell, Geri A. Dino and Leslie Cotrell
Parent support for child physical activity is a consistent predictor of increased childhood activity. Little is known about factors that prevent or facilitate support. The purpose of this research was to identify barriers to parent support for child physical activity in Appalachian parents.
A cross-sectional study assessed parents whose children participated in Coronary Artery Risk Detection in Appalachian Communities (CARDIAC) screenings in a rural Appalachian state. Barriers to parental support for physical activity, demographics, geographic location, and parental support for activity were measured.
A total of 475 parents completed surveys. The majority were mothers (86.7%), parents of kindergarteners (49.5%), white (89.3%), and living in a nonrural area (70.5%). Community-level factors were most frequently cited as barriers, particularly those related to the built environment. Rural and low-income parents reported significantly higher barriers. Community, interpersonal, and intrapersonal barriers were negatively correlated with parent support for child physical activity. Parents of girls reported a higher percentage of barriers related to safety.
Reported barriers in this sample differed from those reported elsewhere (Davison, 2009). Specific groups such as low-income and rural parents should be targeted in intervention efforts. Future research should explore gender differences in reported barriers to determine the influence of cultural stereotypes.
Joanne Butt, Robert S. Weinberg, Jeff D. Breckon and Randal P. Claytor
Physical activity (PA) declines as adolescents get older, and the motivational determinants of PA warrant further investigation. The purposes of this study were to investigate the amount of physical and sedentary activity that adolescents participated in across age, gender, and race, and to investigate adolescents’ attraction to PA and their perceived barriers and benefits across age, gender, and race.
High school students (N = 1163) aged between 13 and 16 years completed questionnaires on minutes and intensity of physical and sedentary activity, interests in physical activity, and perceived benefits and barriers to participating in PA.
A series of multivariate analyses of variance were conducted and followed up with discriminant function analysis. PA participation decreased in older females. In addition, fun of physical exertion was a primary attraction to PA for males more than females. Body image as an expected outcome of participating in PA contributed most to gender differences.
There is a need to determine why PA drops-off as females get older. Findings underscore the importance of structuring activities differently to sustain interest in male and female adolescents, and highlights motives of having a healthy body image, and making PA fun to enhance participation.
James D. Wyant, Emily M. Jones and Sean M. Bulger
In recent years increased attention has been placed on physical education teachers’ use of technology. To date little research has been disseminated regarding the strategies physical education teacher education (PETE) programs are employing to prepare preservice teacher’s to use technology. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence a technology course had on advancing change in preservice teachers. A mixed methods process involving qualitative and quantitative data collection was employed. Participants included 12 preservice teachers enrolled at a mid-Atlantic university. Data analysis revealed four dominant themes emerged from participant data: (1) Increased Technological and Technological Pedagogical Knowledge; (2) Persistent First- and Second-Order Barriers to Technology Use; (3) Necessity of Experiential and Hands-on Learning; and (4) Variation in Warrant for Technology Use. Findings illustrate strengths and limitations of a technology course in a preservice PETE program as well as its potential benefits and impediments to manifesting teacher change.
Breiffni Leavy and Anna Cristina Åberg
The aim of this qualitative study was to explore and describe the perceptions of physical activity held by older urban Swedish and Irish adults. Qualitative interviews were carried out with 30 people age 65 years and older (mean age 74.5), of whom 15 were living in Dublin and 15 were living in Stockholm. The “thematic framework” approach was used to analyze the data. Three central themes were identified regarding people’s perceptions of physical activity: physical activity as self-expression, physical activity as interaction, and physical activity as health promotion. Participants’ perceptions of physical activity tended to relate to their perceived level of physical activity, regardless of their cultural background. Certain culture-specific motivators and barriers to exercise were also identified. Less active Irish men were more likely to underestimate the health-promoting benefits of exercise.
Carina Bauer, Christine Graf, Anna M. Platschek, Heiko K. Strüder and Nina Ferrari
refrain from exercising. Although some studies already examined reasons for not exercising during pregnancy, 23 – 25 little is known about possible barriers and potential motivational factors for physical activity. Also, there is no data that show whether the reasons for less physical activity during
Michael L. Booth, Adrian Bauman and Neville Owen
In a cross-sectional survey, older Australians (N = 402) were asked to report their physical activity habits and the 3 main barriers to more physical activity. Active and inactive men and women differed only in how many reported being sufficiently active or that their health was too poor to be more active. Six barriers were reported by more than 10% of inactive men and women: “already active enough,” “have an injury or disability,” “poor health,” “too old,” “don't have enough time,” and “I'm not the sporty type.” Insufficient time was identified by significantly fewer respondents as age increased. More respondents 65–70+ years old identified poor health as a barrier than did those 60–64. The proportion who had an injury or disability decreased from 60–64 to 65–69 and increased markedly among those 70+. Programs for older adults should take into account the age of the target group and the limitations imposed by poor health or disability.
Laura Q. Rogers, Stephen Markwell, Patricia Hopkins-Price, Sandy Vicari, Kerry S. Courneya, Karen Hoelzer and Steven Verhulst
To better understand mechanisms of physical activity (PA) behavior change in breast cancer survivors, we examined mediation of a successful PA behavior change intervention by social cognitive theory (SCT) constructs. Our exploratory study randomized 41 breast cancer survivors to receive the 3-month intervention (INT) or usual care (UC). We used the Freedman and Schatzkin approach to examine mediation of intervention effect on PA 3 months postintervention by changes in SCT constructs from baseline to immediately postintervention. Compared with UC, the INT group reported lower barriers interference (mean difference = −7.8, 95% CI [−15.1, −0.4], d = −0.67, p = .04) and greater PA enjoyment (mean difference = 0.7, 95% CI [0, 1.5], d = 0.61, p = .06). Barriers interference mediated 39% (p = .004) of the intervention effect on PA 3 months postintervention. PA enjoyment was not a significant mediator. Reducing barriers to PA partially explained our intervention effect.
Melissa N. Galea, Steven R. Bray and Kathleen A. Martin Ginis
This study aimed to identify barriers and facilitators associated with walking for exercise among people who experience intermittent claudication. Fifteen individuals (7 men and 8 women) participated in 3 focus groups that were tape-recorded and content analyzed. A social-cognitive framework was used to categorize barriers and facilitators as those related to the person, to the activity, or to the environment. Variables identified included those specific to intermittent claudication and those common among the general population. Barriers to walking included irregular or graded walking surfaces, uncertainty about the outcome of walking, ambiguity regarding pain, the need to take rest breaks, and the presence of leg pain. Facilitating factors included availability of a resting place, use of cognitive coping strategies, companionship support, and availability of a treadmill-walking program. Findings are interpreted in light of current research on exercise determinants and encourage prospective examinations of the predictive validity of these factors for walking.
Simone Pettigrew, Elissa Burton, Kaela Farrier, Anne-Marie Hill, Liz Bainbridge, Gill Lewin, Phil Airey and Keith Hill
retirement planning ( Kearney, 2013 ; World Health Organization, 2015 ). In addition, actively recruiting older clients has the potential to even out demand cycles by increasing attendance during nonpeak times. Given low participation rates among older people, there are likely to be substantial barriers