The stacking of blacks in noncentral positions is a time-consistent feature of professional baseball. It is shown that differential batting and slugging averages between positions are also a structural feature. The structure of stacking as well as its evolution are well explained by the uncertainty thesis, that is, the belief that discrimination and differential barriers to entry are linked to the difficulty and lack of objectivity in assessing player performance at a given position. However, because the uncertainty thesis fails to predict the expected performance differentials between black and white players, auxiliary hypotheses have to be entertained. It is concluded that a combination of the uncertainty thesis and the well-known centrality hypothesis may best explain what occurs in baseball.
Marc Lavoie and Wilbert M. Leonard II
Paul W. Grimes and Margaret A. May
Using career data for the top jockeys in 1993, a two-equation recursive model is estimated to explain the annual number of mounts raced and the total purse winnings earned across gender. The empirical results indicate that after controlling for performance and experience characteristics, female jockeys secure significantly fewer mounts than male jockeys. Holding performance, the quality of mounts, experience, and the number of mounts constant, the model predicts a significant annual winnings differential in favor of female riders. However, the, observed mean winnings differential favors male riders by a factor approaching six. The results suggest that discriminatory barriers may limit the access of female jockeys to quality mounts and premier racing events and thereby may lower their winnings.
Emma Sherry, Nico Schulenkorf, Emma Seal, Matthew Nicholson and Russell Hoye
As the field of sport-for-development (SFD) has developed, there has been increasing debate over the ability of SFD programs to effect lasting structural change on target communities. Highlighting the barriers to SFD program delivery in five Pacific Island nations, in this paper we argue that numerous challenges emerging at macro-, meso-, and microlevels must be explored, understood, and accounted for to enact structural change. Building on thematic findings from our empirical cross-nation research project, we discuss the importance of addressing SFD challenges at all levels of society to ensure that interventions are appropriately tailored for the specific and often divergent sociocultural contexts in the Pacific Islands region. We argue for a more holistic approach to planning, management, and evaluation when attempting to deliver structural change through sport.
This paper draws on a multi-sited ethnography of the North American Chinese Invitational Volleyball Tournament and examines the attachments and relationships that participation nurtures. I argue that rather than being exclusive, the NACIVT and its participants foster and nurture multiple relationships that extend beyond the NACIVT and Asianness. In doing so, I aim to do two things: 1) address the dearth of academic research on Asians and sport, particularly in the Western context and 2) explore the burgeoning work that offers a transnational analytic of sport, a key theoretical framework in exploring the sport experiences of Asian people in sport, that goes beyond discussions of stereotypes and barriers to participation, but brings into view the effects of how Asia is constructed and imagined.
Danielle R. Brittain and Mary K. Dinger
Adult lesbians are insufficiently active to achieve health benefits. An 8-week pilot intervention targeting coping skills to overcome barriers, was designed to increase moderate physical activity (MPA) among adult lesbians. Sixteen lesbians aged 29 to 55 years (experimental condition [EC] [n = 10]; control condition [CC] [n = 6] completed measures at baseline and end-program. Mixed repeated-measures ANOVAs used to examine between-group differences in average daily: (a) MPA, (b) task self-efficacy (TSE), and (c) self-regulatory efficacy (SRE) from baseline to end-program, were not significant. Two data trends with moderate effect sizes were identified: (1) the EC maintained 24 minutes/d of MPA (P = .10; d = .43); and (2) TSE was maintained among the EC but decreased for the CC (P = .09; d=.44). Only a small effect size was found (P = .56; d = .16) for SRE. The intervention appears to stem declines in MPA and task-related efficacy beliefs.
William J. Rudman
This paper focuses on how age affects involvement in sport and physical activity. Investigated are questions related to how age differences in perceived barriers and outcomes to involvement in sport and physical activity, socioeconomic status, and sport philosophy/ideology affect joining a corporate versus a private sport and fitness program. A developmental lifestyle perspective is offered as the theoretical premise on which interpretations of the data are based. Findings from this study clearly show that reasons for involvement in sport and physical activity vary across the life cycle. At younger ages the psychological benefits associated with work related stress are perceived as the most important reason for involvement. During middle age, philosophical and ideological reasons begin to determine the setting where involvement in these programs takes place. Finally, for older individuals, philosophical differences along with socioeconomic factors determine both the extent and where involvement occurs.
John N. Carr
This study aims to address how, to what extent, and under what conditions may those who are not cisgendered as male do the work of negotiating access to male sporting space. In doing so, it brings together critical geographies of masculinity and the critical literature on skateboarding to address the role of particular kinds of skateboarding spaces in either reproducing or potentially disrupting gender segregated, patriarchal skateboarding cultures. This project is offered not only to challenge patriarchal practices and values, but also to step beyond theory and actually examine how sport environments might be designed and sited so as to enable a wider range of gender performances and more inclusive spaces. Specifically, my research suggests that certain types of skate environments can somewhat lower women’s barriers to entering the gender charged realm of skateboarding if and when those responsible for those spaces take patriarchy and the needs of noncisgendered male skateboarders seriously.
Cette étude a pour but de savoir comment, dans quelle mesure et dans quelles conditions, les personnes n’étant pas des hommes cisgenres négocient leur accès dans l’univers sportif masculin. Pour ce faire, elle réunit les géographies critiques de la masculinité et la littérature critique sur le skateboard pour examiner le rôle de certains univers particuliers de cette pratique dans la reproduction, ou dans l’éventuelle rupture avec la ségrégation genrée, des cultures patriarcales du skateboard. Le but de ce projet n’est pas seulement de contester les pratiques et les valeurs patriarcales, mais aussi de dépasser la théorie et d’examiner vraiment comment les environnements sportifs pourrait être conçus et localisés de manière à permettre une plus grande variété de performances en fonction du genre et de devenir des espaces plus inclusifs. Plus spécifiquement, ma recherche suggère que certains types d’environnements dédiés à la glisse pourraient contribuer à réduire les barrières que rencontrent les femmes pour entrer dans la sphère fortement genrée du skateboard si et quand les responsables de ces espaces prendront sérieusement en compte le patriarcat et les besoins des skatebordeurs qui ne sont pas cisgenres.
Lea Ann “Beez” Schell and Stephanie Rodriguez
Italian Socialist Antonio Gramsci introduced the concept of hegemony in the early 1900s to describe how the capitalist elite maintain their dominant status, through a subtle imposition of ideology upon the masses. According to Gramsci, such a ruling class must generate a consensus of acceptance for dominant ideology. This consensus is created not by coercion, but through the influence of intellectuals and civic institutions. Gramsci’s concept may be applied to help explain the present status of American women in sport, by demonstrating the influence of masculinist hegemony over this institution. Women continue to face numerous barriers imposed by male hegemonic ideology, despite their recent attempts to gain equality and respect in sport. As well, some feminists may feel an ethical dilemma in their provision of support for women’s equality within an institution thought to be complicit with male hegemony. The purpose of this paper is to call attention to the difficulties faced by our sporting sisters and to identify proactive strategies that may work toward the elimination of gender-based economic, social, and political stratification in sport.
Ellen J. Staurowsky, Erica J. Zonder and Brenda A. Riemer
As Title IX approaches its 50th anniversary, the state of its application to athletic departments within federally funded schools at the secondary and postsecondary levels evokes the expression “the more things change, the more things stay the same.” Title IX has been credited with successfully addressing sexual stereotypes that generally limited opportunities and created barriers for students to realize their full potential as athletes, citizens, parents, scholars, and workers (Buzuvis, 2012). As much as the educational landscape has changed as a result of Title IX, there remains a concern that schools do not have the mechanisms in place to ensure compliance five decades after the law was passed. The purpose of this study was to examine what college athletes know about Title IX and how they come to know it through a survey instrument comprised of five open-ended questions. Consistent with previous studies of coaches, athletics administrators, educators, and athletes, nearly 50% of the college athletes participating in this study did not know what Title IX was. For the remaining 50%, their perceptions of Title IX reveal large gaps in foundational understandings of what Title IX requires and how it works. The words of the respondents offer a window into their understandings and relationship with Title IX which cover a full spectrum from “it opens up the door for everyone” and “gives female athletes the support they need to succeed” to it results in an “illogical” way to achieve fairness.
The Norwegian Confederation of Sports, the non-profit umbrella organization for all organized sports in Norway, has gradually accepted women’s demands for equal opportunities and full integration at all levels. The situation for women in sports politics and coaching today is characterized by male dominance as well as high drop-out rates and recruiting problems among women.
The aim of the investigation, as basis for this article, was to give women’s experiences within elected posts and coaching a public voice and elaborate why women hesitate to involve themselves or drop-out after a short period of time. The following questions are outlined and discussed:
- What motivates women to take up elected posts and coaching? - What experiences do women have after holding such posts and roles? - What problems and challenges seem to be difficult to face and handle?
The analytical perspective was inspired by the feminist critique of organizations as gender-neutral arenas, and Bourdieu’s analysis of dominance and power within social fields. The empirical material consisted of questionnaire data and data from a search conference. The sample consisted of women holding elected posts, as well as, female coaches.
Based upon the results women as a group within male domains were not empowered to raise and articulate interests and needs as women. The respondents reported an awareness of barriers, role conflicts and dilemmas, but lacked most often the ability to initiate collective emancipatory changes. The established male-dominated practices were seen as selfevident and natural. Many women chose the strategy of exit as the solution to their situation, because the cost of promoting change outweighed the benefits.