Mixed martial arts (MMA) is a rapidly growing combat sport with unique development procedures unlike most traditional sports. In this study the development processes at an exemplar MMA gym were examined. Institutional work theory was used to understand how and why the sport is being developed in this setting. The results provide a microlevel account of the processes and operation of the sport as it develops, and indicate that traditional sport development models may not adequately represent all sports. Subcultural values reflecting what it takes to be a fighter along with a fighter’s duty to the gym influence recruitment, retention, and transition strategies of athletes. Two forms of institutional work, refinement and barrier work, were identified as simultaneously aiding and hindering the development of the sport. Along with furthering institutional theory research, this study contributes to the discourse on alternative ways of sport development for MMA and emergent sports.
Jules Woolf, Brennan K. Berg, Brianna L. Newland and B. Christine Green
Katie Lebel and Karen Danylchuk
The purpose of this study was to gain insight into Generation Y’s perceptions of women’s sport in the media. Twenty-four participants were recruited and organized into 4 gender-specific focus groups. Participants identified televised sport as a primary and preferred method of sport consumption. Women’s sports were linked with inaccessibility and perceived as inferior to men’s sport in terms of athletic skill and general atmosphere. An underrepresentation of women’s sport in the media was held responsible for the limited awareness surrounding women’s sport. Societal expectations instilled during early socialization processes and limited female opportunity in sport also emerged as critical barriers. Most participants regarded the inequality in women’s sport with indifference and were satisfied as sport enthusiasts with the opportunities for consumption available in men’s sport. This conservative approach to women’s sport suggests that Generation Y’s perceptions wield noteworthy influence on their sport consumption behaviors.
Janice M. Beyer and David R. Hannah
Critics of intercollegiate athletics in the U.S. have identified many negative consequences for universities, individual players, students, and other fans. In this paper, we take a cultural perspective to explore both the positive and negative consequences of college athletics. First, we show how athletics function as cultural forms that carry cultural meanings and argue that many of the meanings carried by athletics reflect cultural ideologies of the wider society. We then enumerate and discuss many of the positive and negative consequences that have been attributed to athletics at societal, organizational, group, and individual levels. Finally, we discuss the implications of our analysis for current reforms, arguing that the cultural significance and positive functions of university athletics represent formidable barriers to reform.
Lisa Pike Masteralexis and Mark A. McDonald
This article presents the results of a pilot study that found significant differences between U.S. and non-U.S. based international sport managers with regard to the educational background, language, and cultural training deemed essential for success in the global sports market. Educational and executive training programs in sport management should recognize sport's movement into a global market and consider providing students in their programs with the competency to compete for positions in sport on a global scale. To do so, sport management programs should offer a global perspective, which encompasses education for recognizing and avoiding potential barriers to effectively conducting sport business in societies where differences exist in language, culture, business, economics, and politics.
Annemarie Farrell, Janet S. Fink and Sarah Fields
While women are increasingly becoming vested fans of men’s football, baseball, hockey, and basketball, the perceived barriers—sociological, psychological and practical—to watching women’s sports still appear formidable for many female fans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the lack of female consumption of women’s sport through the voices and perspectives of female spectators of men’s sport. Based on interviews with female season ticket holders of men’s collegiate basketball who had not attended women’s basketball games for at least 5 years, the most robust theme to emerge was the profound male influence in the spectator lives of women. This influence was a lifelong phenomenon spanning generations, beginning with grandfathers and brothers and continuing through husbands and sons. Other factors combined with this strong influence to block participants’ consumption of women’s sport. These include a lack of awareness and access to women’s sport and the existence of socializing agents who empasized and prioritized male leisure interests.
Marie Hardin and Erin Whiteside
In an effort to move beyond relying solely on institutional critiques in explaining women’s marginalized status in the sports media workplace and to expand our understanding of gendered meaning-making in such organizations, we employ feminist scholar Romy Fröhlich’s notion of the “friendliness trap” in the analysis of focus groups with women who work in college sports public relations, commonly called sports information. The friendliness trap is a term used to describe the faulty belief that women, by virtue of their feminine qualities, possess an advantage in communication-related fields. Our findings suggest, however, that women in sports information may be frustrated by the failure of “the female advantage” to provide them with opportunities for promotion. The friendliness trap obscures workplace realities, including the structural barriers to women’s advancement, and may divert the energy of women in ways that have no career benefit. Once the trap is exposed, however, women may be more able to challenge the meanings associated with it.
Brian E. Pruegger
stated to be a barrier for subjective investment. In Chapter 4, Fannie Valois-Nadeau offers an analysis of discussion forums related to the Canadiens in an attempt to interpret tensions in their “worship” culture. Integration versus rejection of foreigners was one of the representations that dominated
Amy Baker, Mary A. Hums, Yoseph Mamo and Damon P.S. Andrew
four phases: initiation, cultivation, separation, and redefinition ( Chao, 1997 ). Furthermore, certain environmental factors (e.g., opportunities for mentoring, organizational climate) or barriers (e.g., access to mentors, fear of initiating a relationship) may inhibit or facilitate the process
Allyson C. Hartzell and Marlene A. Dixon
examinations of the issue from each of these levels have added to our understanding of the barriers women face when trying to progress in sport careers. Macrolevel Approaches When using a macrolevel approach, researchers consider the broader environmental context that influences the treatment and value placed
Koufax becoming the game’s first Jewish stars. The chapter further discusses the dramatic increase in African American, Latino, and Asian major players following significant steps to bring down barriers for these groups. Case studies abound, from the San Francisco Giants signing Juan Marichal out of the