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Nicole C. George, Charles Kahelin, Timothy A. Burkhart and David M. Andrews

Traditional rigid-link segment biomechanical models are unable to accurately represent the impact response of the musculoskeletal system of living humans because they lack separate wobbling mass (fat mass and lean mass) components, which have been shown to influence the magnitude of forces

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Danielle L. Gyemi, Charles Kahelin, Nicole C. George and David M. Andrews

Biomechanical modeling of dynamic impact events is important for advancing the understanding of how tissues in the body contribute to impact shock attenuation in-vivo. However, many biomechanical models only take into account rigid tissue (ie, bone), without considering the influence of soft

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Jeff A. Nessler, Thomas Hastings, Kevin Greer and Sean C. Newcomer

surfers. For example, biomechanical models of the trunk indicate that while back extensor muscles primarily act to extend the lumbar spine, they can also generate intervertebral compression which may be one cause of discomfort during physical activity. 19 , 20 In addition, increased activation of erector

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Aaron Derouin and Jim R. Potvin

’s average length, average velocity, and moment arm. These data were used as inputs in the biomechanical model described below. Surface EMG signals were digitally band-pass filtered (20–490 Hz), rectified, and low-pass filtered using a first-order Butterworth filter with a cutoff frequency of 2.0 Hz and

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Hendrik Reimann, Tyler Fettrow and John J. Jeka

achieve that location may still prove to be beneficial in rehabilitating populations suffering from poor balance control, such as stroke patients ( Dean and Kautz, 2015 ). The Lateral Ankle Strategy We can make the biomechanical model slightly more complex by adding a foot and an ankle joint to the leg

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Anderson Nascimento Guimarães, Herbert Ugrinowitsch, Juliana Bayeux Dascal and Victor Hugo Alves Okazaki

). The biomechanical model PlugInGait (full body) was used and 35 reflexive markers were placed on both sides of each participant’s body ( Davis III, Ounpuu, Tyburski, & Gage, 1991 ). The relative and absolute angles shown in Figure  1 were calculated from the definition of these segments. Correction of

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Tzu-Chieh Liao, Joyce H. Keyak and Christopher M. Powers

knee flexors crossing the knee joint (medial and lateral hamstrings and medial and lateral gastrocnemius) were recorded at 1500 Hz using preamplified, bipolar, surface electrodes (Noraxon, Scottsdale, AZ). EMG data were used to account for muscle co-contraction in our biomechanical model (see details

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Jian Chen, Bruce Oddson and Heather C. Gilbert

biomechanical modeling of concussion has demonstrated that the greatest strain occurred in subcortical structures and axons following a concussive impact. 26 Mood and motor disorders can arise at least in part from affected subcortical structures such as ventral striatum and subthalamus. Ventral striatum is at

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R. Tyler Richardson, Elizabeth A. Rapp, R. Garry Quinton, Kristen F. Nicholson, Brian A. Knarr, Stephanie A. Russo, Jill S. Higginson and James G. Richards

, Matias R , Veloso AP , Delp SL . A biomechanical model of the scapulothoracic joint to accurately capture scapular kinematics during shoulder movements . PLoS ONE . 2016 ; 11 ( 1 ): 1 – 18 . doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0141028 10.1371/journal.pone.0141028

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Adam C. King

, evaluating the ability to maintain balance through quantifications of postural sway affords a more robust approach to understand how a concussion alters the ability of the postural control system to adapt external perturbations. Traditional biomechanical models, as well as most clinical approaches, posit