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Ronald J. Maughan, Phillip Watson, Philip A.A. Cordery, Neil P. Walsh, Samuel J. Oliver, Alberto Dolci, Nidia Rodriguez-Sanchez and Stuart D.R. Galloway

of blood volume and plasma osmolality ( Heer et al., 2000 ). Energy content and osmolality of beverages are known to influence the rate of gastric emptying ( Hunt & Stubbs, 1975 ; Vist & Maughan, 1994 , 1995 ). In addition, glucose and electrolyte composition and osmolality affect intestinal water

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Nicola Giovanelli, Lea Biasutti, Desy Salvadego, Hailu K. Alemayehu, Bruno Grassi and Stefano Lazzer

oxygenated (Δ[oxy(Hb+Mb)]) and deoxygenated (Hb)+myoglobin (Mb) ([Hb+Mb] Δ[deoxy(Hb+Mb)]) concentrations, with respect to an initial value arbitrarily set equal to zero and obtained during the resting condition preceding the test. Δ[deoxy(Hb+Mb)] is relatively insensitive to changes in blood volume and has

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Paola Rodriguez-Giustiniani and Stuart D.R. Galloway

 al., 1996 ). We used a commercially available sports drink that had a relatively low sodium (25 mmol/L) content, which could add water in excess of solute to the blood and consequently increase blood volume and lower osmolality ( Maughan & Leiper, 1995 ). These two effects suppress the release of ADH and

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Xavier Woorons, François Billaut and Henry Vandewalle

occurs after each bout of breath holding 16 and that is caused by the negative intrathoracic pressure generated during large inspirations. 17 On the other hand, Woorons et al 15 found no improvement in the indices of muscle blood volume or tissue oxygen extraction unlike what may have been expected

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Tracey Covassin, Kyle M. Petit and Morgan Anderson

Source . Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2018 Developmental factors specific to the immature brain appear to play a role in predisposing youth to adverse outcomes after concussion. Specifically, brain water content, cerebral blood volume, level of myelination, and skull geometry have been

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Natalie Frost, Michael Weinborn, Gilles E. Gignac, Shaun Markovic, Stephanie R. Rainey-Smith, Hamid R. Sohrabi, Ralph N. Martins, Jeremiah J. Peiffer and Belinda M. Brown

cerebral blood volume in primary motor cortex of the rat . Neuroscience, 117 ( 4 ), 1037 – 1046 . PubMed ID: 12654355 doi:10.1016/S0306-4522(02)00664-4 10.1016/S0306-4522(02)00664-4 Tierney , M.C. , Black , S.E. , Szalai , J.P. , Snow , W.G. , Fisher , R.H. Nadon , G. , & Chui , H

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Andrew O. Agbaje, Eero A. Haapala, Niina Lintu, Anna Viitasalo, Juuso Väistö, Sohaib Khan, Aapo Veijalainen, Tuomo Tompuri, Tomi Laitinen and Timo A. Lakka

relationship between body fat content and arterial stiffness or arterial dilatation capacity in girls in this study. A plausible explanation for this is that higher body fat content has been associated with larger blood volume, which could result in chronic vasodilatation due to adiposity-induced arterial

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Pai-Yun Cheng, Hsiao-Feng Chieh, Chien-Ju Lin, Hsiu-Yun Hsu, Jia-Jin J. Chen, Li-Chieh Kuo and Fong-Chin Su

with Parkinson’s disease demonstrated the higher enslaving phenomenon in patients during a force ramp task in the pressing position compared with healthy adults ( Park et al., 2012 ). Making connections between sensorimotor performance and the corresponding brain activities, cerebral structure, blood

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Philo U. Saunders, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Robert F. Chapman and Julien D. Périard

. , . . . Schmidt , W. ( 2010 ). Total hemoglobin mass and blood volume of elite Kenyan runners . Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 42 ( 4 ), 791 – 797 . PubMed ID: 19952848 doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181badd67 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181badd67 Racinais , S. , Alonso , J.M. , Coutts , A.J. , Flouris , A

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Christopher P. Connolly, Jordana Dahmen, Robert D. Catena, Nigel Campbell and Alexander H.K. Montoye

throughout gestation, including increased abdominal mass, increased blood volume, and heightened joint laxity ( Hill & Pickinpaugh, 2008 ). These changes result in altered gait and movement speeds in the later pregnancy stages and also alter the orientation of hip-worn monitors (due to increased abdominal