Weinheimer-Haus ( 2015 ) reported that higher protein intake promoted positive changes in body composition (i.e., increased muscle mass and reduced fat mass), but when combined with RT or aerobic training no change was observed in MetS indexes of moderately obese middle-aged adults. Similarly, Maltais et
Hellen C.G. Nabuco, Crisieli M. Tomeleri, Rodrigo R. Fernandes, Paulo Sugihara Junior, Edilaine F. Cavalcante, Danielle Venturini, Décio S. Barbosa, Analiza M. Silva, Luís B. Sardinha and Edilson S. Cyrino
Paula Charest-Lilly, Claudine Sherrill and Joel Rosentswieg
The purpose of this study was to examine the estimated body composition values of women hospitalized for treatment of anorexia nervosa in relation to values reported in the literature for women without known dietary problems. Sixteen volunteers between the ages of 16 and 37 years from hospitals in California and Texas participated in the study. Data collected included height, weight, and selected skinfold and circumference measures. Statistical analyses included independent and paired t tests. Significant differences were found between the percent body fat of anorexic subjects (M = 15.54%) and that of normative women in the Jackson, Pollock, and Ward (1980) study (M = 24.09%). When the actual weight of the anorexic subjects (M = 99.3 lb) was compared with their theoretical minimal weight calculated by the Behnke (1969) formula (M = 106.5 lb), no significant difference was obtained. A comparison of somatogram data for the anorexic women and the reference woman found significant differences at 5 of the 11 sites measured.
William G. Thorland, Glen O. Johnson and Terry J. Housh
Twenty national class, junior level, track and field competitors were measured for body density (BD) via underwater weighing corrected for residual lung volume, and for skinfold (SF) thicknesses, to determine the accuracy of anthropometric estimations of body composition in athletic adolescent black males. BD was transformed to fat-free body (FFB) weight values using the formulas of Brozek, Lohman (age-adjusted), and Schutte (young black men), respectively. For each SF equation, total error (TE) was highest with the formula of Lohman (2.31–4.14 kg) and lowest with the formula of Schutte (2.02–3.62 kg). TE was further reduced when SF estimates of BD were transformed to FFB via the formula of Brozek and were compared to criterion values of FFB based on the formula of Schutte (2.05–3.10 kg). Therefore, racial influences affecting hydrostatically determined FFB differed from those affecting anthropometric estimations.
Vivian H. Heyward
This paper provides an overview of practical methods for assessing body composition of children, adults, and older adults. Three methods commonly used in field and clinical settings are skinfolds, bioelectrical impedance analysis, and anthropometry. For each method, standardized testing procedures, sources of measurement error, recommendations for technicians, and selected prediction equations for each age category are presented. The skinfold method is appropriate for estimating body fat of children (6–17 years) and body density of adults (18–60 years) from diverse ethnic groups. Likewise, bioimpedance is well suited tor estimating the fat-free mass of children (10-19 years) as well as American Indian, black, Hispanic, and white adults. Anthropometric prediction equations that use a combination of circumferences and bony diameters are recommended for older adults (up to 79 years of age), as well as obese men and women.
Maroje Soric, Marjeta Misigoj-Durakovic and Zeljko Pedisic
The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake and body composition of prepubescent girls competing in 3 aesthetic sports (artistic and rhythmic gymnastics and ballet). Because physiological demands of ballet training are similar to those in other aesthetic sports, ballet dancers were, for the purpose of this study, regarded as athletes. The sample consisted of 39 athletes (median age, 11 years, range 9–13) and 15 controls (median age, 11 years, range 10–12). Dietary intake was assessed using a quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and body composition, by means of anthropometry. There was no significant difference in total energy intake between groups, but there was a significant difference in energy substrate distribution. Artistic gymnasts reported significantly higher carbohydrate and lower fat contribution to total energy (57% ± 6% and 29% ± 5%, respectively) than rhythmic gymnasts (48% ± 6% and 36% ± 5%), ballet dancers (51% ± 4% and 34% ± 3%), or controls (51% ± 5% and 34% ± 4%). Relative to body weight, artistic gymnasts reported higher intake of carbohydrates (9.1 ± 4.2 g/kg) than rhythmic gymnasts (5.6 ± 3.1 g/kg), ballet dancers (6.6 ± 2.5 g/kg), or controls (5.4 ± 1.9 g/kg). Artistic gymnasts also had the lowest body-fat percentage among the groups. In all the groups mean reported daily intakes of most nutrients were higher than the current daily recommended intakes. The exceptions were dietary fiber and calcium. The proportion of athletes with an inadequate reported intake was highest for phosphorus (33%), followed by vitamin A and niacin (18%) and zinc (13%).
Bill I. Campbell, Danielle Aguilar, Laurin Conlin, Andres Vargas, Brad Jon Schoenfeld, Amey Corson, Chris Gai, Shiva Best, Elfego Galvan and Kaylee Couvillion
longitudinal studies investigating optimal daily protein intakes to maximize body composition. In a very short-term study, Lemon et al. ( 1992 ) found that protein intake of 1.35 versus 2.62 g·kg −1 ·day −1 produced similar increases in lean body mass and thigh muscle cross-sectional area in novice lifters
Alexei Wong, Marcos A. Sanchez-Gonzalez, Won-Mok Son, Yi-Sub Kwak and Song-Young Park
, vasoactive substances, inflammatory markers, IR, and body composition in obese adolescent girls. We hypothesized that 12 weeks of CET would reduce arterial stiffness, C-reactive protein, and IR, which would be accompanied by improved vasoactive substances levels and decreased central adiposity. Material and
Inès Boukabous, Alexis Marcotte-Chénard, Taha Amamou, Pierre Boulay, Martin Brochu, Daniel Tessier, Isabelle Dionne and Eléonor Riesco
reasons ( Craft, Carroll, & Lustyk, 2014 ). In this context, low-volume (75 min/week) high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been recently suggested as a time-efficient strategy to improve body composition, metabolic profile, and cardiorespiratory fitness in inactive adults and in adults living with
George Wilson, Jerry Hill, Daniel Martin, James P. Morton and Graeme L. Close
assessing changes in body composition using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). It was reported that 2.5 kg of absolute body fat was the lowest achievable fat mass without unacceptable losses of lean muscle mass, along with such severe food cravings that the study could not continue. Indeed, when 2.5 kg
J. Paul Fawcett, Stephen J. Farquhar, Robert J. Walker, Thearoth Thou, Graham Lowe and Ailsa Goulding
The effects of oral vanadyl sulfáte (VOSO4) (0.5 mg/kg/day) on anthropometry, body composition, and Performance were investigated in a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving weight-training volunteers. Performance was assessed in the treatment (VS) and placebo (P) groups using 1 and 10 repetitions maximum (RM) for the bench press and leg extension. Thirty-one subjects completed the trial, with 2 VS subjects withdrawing because of apparent side effects. There were no significant treatment effects for anthropo-metric parameters and body composition during the trial. Both groups had significant improvements in performance but the only significant effect of treatment was a Treatment × Time interaction in the 1 RM leg extension (p=.002), which could have arisen because the VS group had a lower performance at baseline in this test. It was concluded that oral vanadyl sulfáte was ineffective in changing body composition in weight-training athletes, and any modest performance-enhancing effect requires further investigation.