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Andreas M. Kasper, Ben Crighton, Carl Langan-Evans, Philip Riley, Asheesh Sharma, Graeme L. Close and James P. Morton

) total cholesterol, (i) high-density lipid (HDL), and (j) low-density lipid (LDL). D = days; W = weeks. Despite a body mass loss of 4.4 kg during Phase 1, the athlete was still required to lose 9.6 kg in the next 7 days. In Phase 2 of the athlete’s strategy, he subsequently underwent a 5-day water-loading protocol

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Eric Kyle O’Neal, Samantha Louise Johnson, Brett Alan Davis, Veronika Pribyslavska and Mary Caitlin Stevenson-Wilcoxson

separating samples from runs that resulted in 2.00–2.99% or ≥3.00% body mass loss. The rationale for dividing samples into these categories was made so lower and higher sweat losses would be split into groups of close sizes with a large n (vs. splitting data into tertiles or quartiles) and to provide whole

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Stephanie K. Gaskell, Rhiannon M.J. Snipe and Ricardo J.S. Costa

intake was restricted during exercise, resulting in 3.2 ± 0.4% and 3.1 ± 0.7% body mass loss, 307 ± 6 and 306 ± 11 mOsmol/kg postexercise plasma osmolality, respectively. Exercise Protocol 2: Exertional-Heat Stress Participants completed a 2-hr (initiated at 0900 h) running exercise on a motorized

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Christopher Rosimus

.D. ( 2010 ). Increased protein intake reduces lean body mass loss during weight loss in athletes . Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 42 ( 2 ), 326 – 337 . PubMed doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181b2ef8e 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181b2ef8e Need , A.G. , Horowitz , M. , Morris , H.A. , & Nordin , B

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George Wilson, Jerry Hill, Daniel Martin, James P. Morton and Graeme L. Close

the lack of generally accepted definitions. In an attempt to establish this minimum essential body fat classification, Friedl et al. ( 1994 ) induced a 10% body mass loss over 8 weeks in healthy military personnel during an intensive Ranger course, combined with severe calorie restriction, while also

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.1% body mass loss, 290 and 303 mOsmol·kg −1 plasma osmolality, and −0.9 and −5.8% plasma volume change, respectively). Immediately and 1 h post-exercise participants received water (equating to × 1.5 body mass loss). Venous blood samples were collected pre- and post-exercise, and during recovery. Whole

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Reid Reale, Gary Slater and Louise M. Burke

competition preparation. b Different to judo ( P  ≤ .05). c Different to wrestling ( P  ≤ .05). Table  5 displays frequency of use of different weight loss methods. Table 5 Frequency Analysis of Different Methods of Body Mass Loss by Sport a (N = 229) Always, % Sometimes, % Almost never, % Never used

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Giannis Arnaoutis, Panagiotis Verginadis, Adam D. Seal, Ioannis Vogiatzis, Labros S. Sidossis and Stavros A. Kavouras

mass losses in competitive sailors even in cold conditions despite ad libitum fluid intake ( Lewis et al., 2013 ). The current investigation shows similar results for hydration status when observed separately each day of the competition. What is unique of this study is the progressive dehydration

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Keith Baar

the season, the player saw minimal changes in body mass (−2.5 kg). The decrease in body weight corresponded with a decrease in fat mass (from 8.4% to 5.9%), indicating that a large percentage of the body mass loss was the result of a decrease in fat mass. In agreement with this assessment, lean mass

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Ricardo J.S. Costa, Beat Knechtle, Mark Tarnopolsky and Martin D. Hoffman

both health and performance in ultramarathon running. Proper hydration during ultramarathon running requires the understanding that all fluid losses need not be replaced, as body mass loss from endogenous substrate oxidation is expected ( Hoffman et al., 2018a ; Maughan et al., 2007 ). It is also