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Katie Rodgers

, 57 ( 8 ): 949 – 967 . PubMed ID: 20818524 doi:10.1080/00918369.2010.503502 10.1080/00918369.2010.503502 Connell , R.W. ( 1995 ). Masculinities . Berkeley, CA : University of California Press . Klein , A.M. ( 1993 ). Little big men: Bodybuilding subculture and gender construction . Albany

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Margo L. Mountjoy, Louise M. Burke, Trent Stellingwerff and Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen

energy availability in natural male bodybuilding: A review . International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism . 1 – 18 . doi:10.1123/ijsnem.2016-0332 Heikura , I. , Uusitalo , A. , Stellingwerff , T. , Bergland , D. , Mero , A. , & Burke , L. ( 2018 ). Low energy

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Ronald J. Maughan, Susan M. Shirreffs and Alan Vernec

supplements (HDS). Of the sample, 45 had injury caused by bodybuilding HDS, 85 by non-bodybuilding HDS, and 709 by medications. Liver injury caused by HDS increased from 7% to 20% during the study period. More recently, nationally-representative surveillance data from 63 emergency departments were obtained by

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Hugh Gilmore, Stephen Shannon, Gerard Leavey, Martin Dempster, Shane Gallagher and Gavin Breslin

blood flow and up-regulated muscle protein synthesis ( Yu et al., 2014 ). As such, AAS are efficacious in increasing muscular size, performance, and aesthetics, and consequently, are prevalent in elite sport and professional bodybuilding (i.e., collective estimate of 13.4%; Sagoe, Modle, Andreassen

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Matt C. Crockett and Ted Butryn

order to witness the hierarchical process of social acceptance into this subculture. This hierarchy of hypermasculinity has been discussed in previous research on gym culture, as Klein ( 1993 ) described similar situations in a bodybuilding gym. Larger and stronger lifters would ask to “work-in” on an

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Kemal Idrizovic, Bahri Gjinovci, Damir Sekulic, Ognjen Uljevic, Paulo Vicente João, Miodrag Spasic and Tine Sattler

regular volleyball training (ie, in the control group). Although anthropometric and body-build indices play an important role in volleyball ( 26 , 29 ), studies have rarely examined the effects of plyometric training on those indices in volleyball players. Plyometric training did not result in changes in

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Andrea S. Hartmann, Florian Steenbergen, Silja Vocks, Dirk Büsch and Manuel Waldorf

pathological symptoms in women. The findings showed that competitive female bodybuilding, i.e., a high drive for muscularity, is associated with symptoms of exercise dependence, dietary behavior, supplement use ( Hale, Diehl, Weaver, & Briggs, 2013 ), body dissatisfaction and eating disorder symptoms

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Gareth McNarry, Jacquelyn Allen-Collinson and Adam B. Evans

during training—pain he argues is constructive and contributes to the sustainability of bodybuilding as a physical culture. Pain can also be conceptualized as a “body pedagogic” ( Shilling, 2017 ), as highlighted by Vaittinen ( 2014 ) in her detailed phenomenological examination of “pain as a way of

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Diego B. Souza, Michael Duncan and Marcos D. Polito

, body mass index below 30 kg·m −2 , trained in bodybuilding for at least 12 months (but without experience with BFR exercises), and nonhabitual CAF users. Individuals were instructed not to engage in vigorous exercise or consume alcoholic beverages for 72 hours prior to each testing session until the

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Theodore Kent Kessinger, Bridget Melton, Theresa Miyashita and Greg Ryan

of nutritional supplements affecting muscular performance 12 wk or longer prior to the start of the study. Intervention Investigated RT groups performed 9 exercises targeting major muscle groups with equated volume. Exercises chosen were based on common inclusion in bodybuilding and strength-type RT