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Thomas Cattagni, Vincent Gremeaux and Romuald Lepers

scores of BMD were used to compare DL with healthy young females with peak bone mass according to the manufacturer’s instructions and the World Health Organization. 21 A T score between +1 and −1 denotes normal bone density. A T score between −1 and −2.5 indicates low bone density or osteopenia. A T

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Marta C. Erlandson, Shonah B. Runalls, Stefan A. Jackowski, Robert A. Faulkner and Adam D.G. Baxter-Jones

-2007-972713 10.1055/s-2007-972713 4. Bass S , Pearce G , Bradney M , Hendrich E , Delmas PD , Harding A , Seeman E . Exercise before puberty may confer residual benefits in bone density in adulthood: studies in active prepubertal and retired female gymnasts . J Bone Miner Res

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Rossana C. Nogueira, Benjamin K. Weeks and Belinda Beck

portable, radiation-free device used to determine broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA; dB/MHz) and stiffness index (SI; %) of the nondominant calcaneus. BUA is correlated with bone density ( r  = .4–.6) and with fracture prediction, reflecting bone mass as well as structural features of bone tissue (eg

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. These changes were dependent on race duration. The highest increase was noticed in the albuminuria and uNGAL. It is not clear if AKI markers can help to differentiate between functional and structural kidney injury. Pelvic Fracture and Low Bone Density in a Long Distance Cyclist With a History of

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Tina Smith, Sue Reeves, Lewis G. Halsey, Jörg Huber and Jin Luo

activity, only moderate and vigorous activity levels and high impacts have been shown to improve bone density in adolescents and middle aged women. 26 , 37 , 38 Previous work by Kelley et al 27 has demonstrated that types of activities generating very light (<5 BW/s), light (>5 BW/s), moderate (>10 BW

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Eric Tsz-Chun Poon, John O’Reilly, Sinead Sheridan, Michelle Mingjing Cai and Stephen Heung-Sang Wong

used validated instruments to quantify the overall bone-specific loading nature of various physical activities (PAs) among jockeys. Recent studies examining bone health in jockeys have also assessed endocrine function. It is hypothesized that suboptimal bone density is attributed to the disruption of

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Igor H. Ito, Han C.G. Kemper, Ricardo R. Agostinete, Kyle R. Lynch, Diego G.D. Christofaro, Enio R. Ronque and Rômulo A. Fernandes

were similar between boys and girls. Discussion This 9-month longitudinal study involving adolescents of both genders engaged in martial arts identified distinct and significant impact of each martial art on bone density in different segments of the body, mainly among boys. In adults, studies have

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Ida A. Heikura, Arja L.T. Uusitalo, Trent Stellingwerff, Dan Bergland, Antti A. Mero and Louise M. Burke

Reproductive Hormone Concentrations, Bone Density, and Injury and Illness History in Female and Male Athletes Categorized Into Low (AME and Low TES) and Normal (EUM and Normal TES) Reproductive Function Subgroups Females Males AME ( n  = 13) EUM ( n  = 22) ES a Low TES ( n  = 10) Normal TES ( n  = 14) ES a

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Francesco Campa and Stefania Toselli

different sports on bone density and muscle mass in highly trained athletes . Med Sci Sports Exerc . 2001 ; 33 ( 4 ): 507 – 511 . PubMed ID: 11283423 . doi:10.1097/00005768-200104000-00001 10.1097/00005768-200104000-00001 5. Carrasco-Marginet M , Castizo-Olier J , Rodríguez-Zamora L , et

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Margo L. Mountjoy, Louise M. Burke, Trent Stellingwerff and Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen

.1123/ijsnem.2017-0397 Wilson , G. , Martin , D. , Morton , J. , & Close , G. ( 2018 ). Male flat jockeys do not display deteriorations in bone density or resting metabolic rate in accordance with race riding experience: Implications for RED-S . International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise