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Michael C. Riddell, Oded Bar-Or, Beatriz V. Ayub, Randolph E. Calvert and George J.F. Heigenhauser

There are currently no guidelines regarding the carbohydrate (CHO) dosage required to prevent exercise-induced hypoglycemia in children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). To prevent hypoglycemia by matching glucose ingestion with total-CHO utilization, 20 adolescents with IDDM attended 2 trials: control (CT; drinking water) and glucose (GT; drinking 6-8% glucose). Participants performed 60 min of moderate-intensity cycling 100 min after insulin injection and breakfast. CT's total-CHO utilization during exercise was determined using indirect calorimetry. In GT, participants ingested glucose in the amount equal to total CHO utilization in the CT. A total of 9 participants had BG <4.0 mmol/L in CT compared to 3 in GT (p < .05). In conclusion, glucose ingestion equal to total-CHO utilization attenuates the drop in blood glucose and reduces the likelihood of hypoglycemia during exercise in adolescents with IDDM.

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Jennifer Gornall and Rudolph G. Villani

The primary aim was to investigate whether the reduction in resting metabolic rate (RMR) and fat free mass (FFM) associated with a short-term very low kilojoule diet (VLKD) is altered by concurrent resistance exercise. Twenty overweight, premenopausal women were pair matched on body surface area and randomly assigned to either diet only (3,400 kJ/day) or diet combined with resistance training. Before and after 4 weeks of treatment, RMR was assessed by indirect calorimetry; total body mass (TBM), FFM, and fat mass (FM) by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry; total body water (TBW) by bioelectrical impedance; and strength by a weight-lifting test. Both groups had significantly lower TBM, FFM, FM, TBW, absolute RMR, and RMR, with FFM as the covariate, in the posttests than the pretests with no significant differences between groups. It was concluded that 4 weeks of resistance training did not prevent or reduce the decline in FFM and RMR observed with a VLKD.

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Lisa H. Colbert, Charles E. Matthews, Dale A. Schoeller, Thomas C. Havighurst and KyungMann Kim

This study examined the intensity of activity contributing to physical activity energy expenditure in older adults. In 57 men and women aged ≥ 65, total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured using doubly labeled water and resting metabolic rate was measured using indirect calorimetry to calculate a physical activity index (PAI). Sedentary time and physical activity of light and moderate to vigorous (mod/vig) intensity was measured using an accelerometer. The subjects were 75 ± 7 yrs (mean ± SD) of age and 79% female. Subjects spent 66 ± 8, 25 ± 5, and 9 ± 4% of monitor wear time in sedentary, light, and mod/vig activity per day, respectively. In a mixture regression model, both light (β = 29.6 [15.6–43.6, 95% CI]), p < .001) and mod/vig intensity activity (β = 28.7 [7.4−50.0, 95% CI]), p = .01) were strongly associated with PAI, suggesting that both light and mod/vig intensity activities are major determinants of their physical activity energy expenditure.

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Lesley J. White, Rudolph H. Dressendorfer, Eric Holland, Sean C. McCoy and Michael A. Ferguson

We examined the acute effect of cold-water temperature on post-exercise energy intake (EI) for 1 h. In a randomized, crossover design, 11 men (25.6 ± 5 y) exercised for 45 min on a submersed cycle ergometer at 60 ± 2% VO2max in 33°C (neutral) and 20° (cold) water temperatures, and also rested for 45 min (control). Energy expenditure (EE) was determined using indirect calorimetry before, during, and after each condition. Following exercise or rest, subjects had free access to a standard assortment of food items of known caloric value. EE was similar for the cold and neutral water conditions, averaging 505 ± 22 (± standard deviation) and 517 ± 42 kcal, respectively (P = NS). EI after the cold condition averaged 877 ± 457 kcal, 44% and 41% higher (P < 0.05) than for the neutral and resting conditions, respectively. Cold-water temperature thus stimulated post-exercise EI. Water temperature warrants consideration in aquatic programs designed for weight loss.

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Gianluca Vernillo, Aldo Savoldelli, Barbara Pellegrini and Federico Schena

The current study aimed to show the validity of a portable motion sensor, the SenseWear Armband (SWA), for the estimation of energy expenditure during pole walking. Twenty healthy adults (mean ± SD: age 30.1 ± 7.2 year, body mass 66.1 ± 10.6 kg, height 172.4 ± 8.0 cm, BMI 22.1 ± 2.4 kg·m−2) wore the armband during randomized pole walking activities at a constant speed (1.25 m·s−1) and at seven grades (0%, ±5%, ±15% and ±25%). Estimates of total energy expenditure from the armband were compared with values derived from indirect calorimetry methodology (IC) using a 2–way mixed model ANOVA (Device × Slope), correlation analyses and Bland-Altman plots. Results revealed significant main effects for device, and slope (p < .025) as well as a significant interaction (p < .001). Significant differences between IC and SWA were observed for all conditions (p < .05). SWA generally underestimate the EE values during uphill PW by 0.04 kcal·kg−1·min−1 (p < .05). Whereas, a significant overestimation has been detected during flat and downhill PW by 0.01 and 0.03 kcal·kg−1·min−1 (p < .05), respectively. The Bland-Altman plots revealed bias of the armband compared with the indirect calorimetry at any condition examined. The present data suggest that the armband is not accurate to correctly detect and estimate the energy expenditure during pole walking activities. Therefore, the observed over- and under-estimations warrants more work to improve the ability of SWA to accurately measure EE for these activities.

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Jennie A. Gilbert and James E. Misner

This study examined the metabolic response to a 763-kcal mixed meal at rest and during 30 min of exercise at 50% maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) in 8 aerobically trained (AT), 8 resistance trained (RT), and 8 untrained (UT) subjects. Oxygen consumption (VO,) was measured minute by minute during 30 min of exercise by indirect calorimetry on 2 nonconsecutive days (postabsorptive exercise, PA; and postprandial exercise, PP). Total VO, consumed and total caloric expenditure during the PA and PP conditions were similar for the three groups, indicating that prior food intake did not affect energy expenditure during exercise. Consequently, TEM during exercise did not differ significantly among the groups. Respiratory exchange ratio (R) differed significantly only during the PA condition, with the AT group exhibiting significantly lower R values compared to the RT group, and significantly lower R values compared to the UT group. These data suggest that the consumption of a meal 30 min prior to exercise does not increase TEM during exercise in AT, RT, and UT subjects.

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Dennis van Hamont, Christopher R. Harvey, Denis Massicotte, Russell Frew, François Peronnet and Nancy J. Rehrer

Effects of feeding glucose on substrate metabolism during cycling were studied. Trained (60.0 ± 1.9 mL · kg−1 · min−1) males (N = 5) completed two 75 min, 80% VO2max trials: 125 g 13C-glucose (CHO); 13C-glucose tracer, 10 g (C). During warm-up (30 min 30% VO2max) 2 ⋅ 2 g 13C-glucose was given as bicarbonate pool primer. Breath samples and blood glucose were analyzed for 13C/ 12C with IRMS. Protein oxidation was estimated from urine and sweat urea. Indirect calorimetry (protein corrected) and 13C/ 12C enrichment in expired CO2 and blood glucose allowed exogenous (Gexo), endogenous (Gendo), muscle (Gmuscle), and liver glucose oxidation calculations. During exercise (75 min) in CHO versus C (respectively): protein oxidation was lower (6.8 ± 2.7, 18.8 ± 5.9 g; P = 0.01); Gendo was reduced (71.2 ± 3.8, 80.7 ± 5.7%; P = 0.01); Gmuscle was reduced (55.3 ± 6.1, 65.9 ± 6.0%; P = 0.01) compensated by increased Gexo (58.3 ± 2.1, 3.87 ± 0.85 g; P = 0.000002). Glucose ingestion during exercise can spare endogenous protein and carbohydrate, in fed cyclists, without gly-cogen depletion.

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Barbara E. Ainsworth, Robert G. McMurray and Susan K. Veazey

The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of two submaximal exercise tests, the Sitting-Chair Step Test (Smith & Gilligan. 1983) and the Modified Step Test (Amundsen, DeVahl, & Ellingham, 1989) to predict peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) in 28 adults ages 60 to 85 years. VO2 peak was measured by indirect calorimetry during a treadmill maximal graded exercise test (VO2 peak, range 11.6–31.1 ml · kg −l · min−1). In each of the submaximal tests, VO2 was predicted by plotting stage-by-stage submaximal heart rate (HR) and perceived exertion (RPE) data against VO2 for each stage and extrapolating the data to respective age-predicted maximal HR or RPE values. In the Sitting-Chair Step Test (n = 23), no significant differences were observed between measured and predicted VO2 peak values (p > .05). However, predicted VO2 peak values from the HR were 4.3 ml · kg−1 · min−1 higher than VO2 peak values predicted from the RPE data (p < .05). In the Modified Step Test (n = 22), no significant differences were observed between measured and predicted VO2 peak values (p > .05). Predictive accuracy was modest, explaining 49–78% of the variance in VO2 peak. These data suggest that the Sitting-Chair Step Test and the Modified Step Test have moderate validity in predicting VO2 peak in older men and women.

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Gerda Jimmy, Roland Seiler and Urs Maeder

Background:

Accelerometry has been established as an objective method that can be used to assess physical activity behavior in large groups. The purpose of the current study was to provide a validated equation to translate accelerometer counts of the triaxial GT3X into energy expenditure in young children.

Methods:

Thirty-two children aged 5–9 years performed locomotor and play activities that are typical for their age group. Children wore a GT3X accelerometer and their energy expenditure was measured with indirect calorimetry. Twenty-one children were randomly selected to serve as development group. A cubic 2-regression model involving separate equations for locomotor and play activities was developed on the basis of model fit. It was then validated using data of the remaining children and compared with a linear 2-regression model and a linear 1-regression model.

Results:

All 3 regression models produced strong correlations between predicted and measured MET values. Agreement was acceptable for the cubic model and good for both linear regression approaches.

Conclusions:

The current linear 1-regression model provides valid estimates of energy expenditure for ActiGraph GT3X data for 5- to 9-year-old children and shows equal or better predictive validity than a cubic or a linear 2-regression model.

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Lance Ratcliff, Sareen S. Gropper, B. Douglas White, David M. Shannon and Kevin W. Huggins

This study compared type of habitual exercise and meal form on diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) in 29 men age 19–28 yr. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) and DIT response to solid-meal (bar) vs. liquid-meal (shake) ingestion were measured via indirect calorimetry; classifications were sedentary (n = 9), endurance trained (n = 11), or resistance trained (n = 9). Height, weight, and body composition (using bioelectrical impedance) were measured for each subject. Energy expenditure was determined before and every 30 min after meal consumption for 210 min. RMR was significantly (p = .045) higher in the endurance- and resistance-trained groups. However, when expressed per kilogram fat-free mass (FFM; relative RMR), differences were not significant. Both DIT (kcal/min) and relative DIT (kcal · min−1 · kg FFM−1) significantly increased with time (p < .0001) from RMR for each meal form. There was no significant exercise-group effect on DIT or relative DIT. There was a significant (p = .012) effect of meal form on DIT; shakes elicited a higher DIT. This significant difference was not found for relative DIT. There was a significant interaction between group and meal form for DIT (p = .008) and relative DIT (p < .0001). Shakes elicited a significantly greater DIT (p = .0002) and relative DIT (p = .0001) in the resistance-trained group. In the sedentary group, relative DIT from shakes was significantly lower than from bars (p = .019). In conclusion, habitual exercise appears to increase RMR, and meal form may impart changes in relative DIT depending on exercise status.