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Cheryl M. Glazebrook

, including the premotor and motor cortex, parietal cortex (apraxia), and cerebellum ( Carlsen, Maslovat, & Franks, 2012 ; Doyon et al., 2009 ; Franklin & Wolpert, 2011 ; Grosprⓔtre, Lebon, Papaxanthis, & Martin, 2016 ; Hornix, 2018 ; Pruszynski et al., 2011 ). A wide range of patient studies, as well as

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Tamara May, Nicole Rinehart, Lisa Barnett, Trina Hinkley, Jane McGillivray, Helen Skouteris, Delwyne Stephens and Debra Goldfinch

), 436 – 447 . PubMed ID: 20697417 doi:10.1038/ijo.2010.151 10.1038/ijo.2010.151 Nayate , A. , Bradshaw , J.L. , & Rinehart , N.J. ( 2005 ). Autism and Asperger’s disorder: Are they movement disorders involving the cerebellum and/or basal ganglia? Brain Research Bulletin, 67 ( 4 ), 327 – 334

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Satyajit Ambike, Daniela Mattos, Vladimir Zatsiorsky and Mark Latash

: Multifinger accurate force production . Journal of Neurophysiology, 110 , 1965 – 1973 . PubMed doi:10.1152/jn.00461.2013 10.1152/jn.00461.2013 Yu , H. , Sternad , D. , Corcos , D.M. , & Vaillancourt , D.E. ( 2007 ).  Role of hyperactive cerebellum and motor cortex in Parkinson’s disease

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Brian D. Street and William Gage

functional tasks at the knee, hand, and ankle. It was reported that during the knee task (but not for the hand or ankle tasks), patients with knee OA showed reduced activation in the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and premotor cortex when compared with healthy controls. The authors suggested that these results

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Priscila Tamplain, E. Kipling Webster, Ali Brian and Nadia C. Valentini

development and cognitive development and of the cerebellum and prefrontal cortex . Child Development, 71 ( 1 ), 44 – 56 . PubMed ID: 10836557 doi: 10.1111/1467-8624.00117 Estevan , I. , Molina-Garcia , J. , Bowe , S.J. , Alvarez , O. , Castillo , I. , & Barnett , L. ( 2018 ). Who can best

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Mark L. Latash

). Equifinality and its violations in a redundant system: Multi-finger accurate force production . Journal of Neurophysiology, 110 , 1965 – 1973 . PubMed doi:10.1152/jn.00461.2013 10.1152/jn.00461.2013 Wolpert , D.M. , Miall , R.C. , & Kawato , M. ( 1998 ). Internal models in the cerebellum . Trends

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Nicholas E. Fears and Jeffrey J. Lockman

. , Mennes , M. , Marquand , A. , Charman , T. , Tillmann , J. , Ecker , C. , . . . Zwiers , M.P. ( 2019 ). Altered connectivity between cerebellum, visual, and sensory-motor networks in autism spectrum disorder: Results from the EU-AIMS Longitudinal European Autism Project . Biological

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Pai-Yun Cheng, Hsiao-Feng Chieh, Chien-Ju Lin, Hsiu-Yun Hsu, Jia-Jin J. Chen, Li-Chieh Kuo and Fong-Chin Su

). That is, a model so-called “hemispheric asymmetry reduction in older adults (HAROLD)” was used to describe the less asymmetry of brain activity in older adults compared with young adults. Noble et al. ( 2011 ) also found that older adults exhibit higher activation in the cerebellum and premotor cortex

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Wonjae Choi and Seungwon Lee

decisions such as changes in paddling direction and bimanual coordinated movement based on the situation. Neural processing through the cerebellum and basal ganglia is required to coordinate and perform the desired movements, and integration in the association area of the brain is required for changing the

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Sandra J. Shultz and Randy J. Schmitz

cerebellum, than controls ( Grooms et al., 2017 ). These studies collectively suggest an increased dependence on visual feedback during simple knee exercises and a shift away from a sensorimotor strategy ( Grooms, Page, & Onate, 2015 ). Given that neuromuscular training exercises often include increased