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Steven Eustace, Richard Michael Page and Matt Greig

: 27215935 doi:10.1136/bjsports-2015-095908 27215935 10.1136/bjsports-2015-095908 4. Kellis E , Arabatzi F , Papadopoulos C . Muscle co-activation around the knee in drop jumping using the co-contraction index . J Electromyogr Kinesiol . 2003 ; 13 ( 3 ): 229 – 238 . PubMed ID: 12706603 doi:10

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Yong Wook Kim, Na Young Kim, Won Hyuk Chang and Sang Chul Lee

and delay of response, and consequently to compensate for weakness of the passive stabilization system. 27 Sling exercise is also effective for such motor retraining. Motor control can be enhanced through a combination of joint stability (co-contraction) exercises, balance training, and perturbation

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Chris Brogden, Kelly Marrin, Richard Page and Matt Greig

been observed. It has been proposed that postural stability training programs improve neuromuscular mechanisms involved in the co-contraction of agonist and antagonistic muscles that increase active joint stability and joint stiffness, thus resulting in less joint displacement and strain placed upon

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Jill Alexander and David Rhodes

. Thermoreceptors and thermosensitive afferents . Neuro Biobehav Rev . 2010 ; 34 , 177 – 184 . doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2009.10003 35. Shultz R , Silder A , Malone M , Braun HJ , Dragoo JL . Unstable surface improves quadriceps:hamstring co-contraction for anterior cruciate ligament injury

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Andrzej Kochanowicz, Bartłomiej Niespodziński, Jan Mieszkowski, Stanisław Sawczyn, Paweł Cięszczyk and Kazimierz Kochanowicz

influence the development of rapid muscle strength is the co-contraction of antagonistic muscles. In adults, it has been shown that strength training reduces antagonist coactivation and thus results in greater net joint torque ( 2 , 40 , 43 ). Studies by Grosset et al ( 21 ) and Lambertz et al ( 34

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John M. Radnor, Jon L. Oliver, Charlotte M. Waugh, Gregory D. Myer and Rhodri S. Lloyd

muscles or ongoing changes in neural properties ( 9 ). For example, as children mature, they have a greater potential to produce force, as there is a reduced agonist–antagonist co-contraction, a greater ability to recruit high-threshold type II motor units, and greater muscle activation rates ( 10

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Dimitrios-Sokratis Komaris, Cheral Govind, Andrew Murphy, Alistair Ewen and Philip Riches

.1016/j.clinbiomech.2013.07.008 14. Heiden TL , Lloyd DG , Ackland TR . Knee joint kinematics, kinetics and muscle co-contraction in knee osteoarthritis patient gait . Clin Biomech . 2009 ; 24 ( 10 ): 833 – 841 . PubMed doi:10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2009.08.005 10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2009.08.005 15

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Daniël M. van Leeuwen, Fabian van de Bunt, Cornelis J. de Ruiter, Natasja M. van Schoor, Dorly J.H. Deeg and Kaj S. Emanuel

). 445 pages. $31.95 . Behaviour Research and Therapy, 23 ( 6 ), 714 – 715 . doi:10.1016/0005-7967 7 Fallah-Yakhdani , H.R. , Abbasi-Bafghi , H. , Meijer , O.G. , Bruijn , S.M. , Van Den Dikkenberg , N. , Benedetti , M.G. , & Van Dieën , J.H. ( 2012 ). Determinants of co-contraction

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Alison R. Oates, Aaron Awdhan, Catherine Arnold, Joyce Fung and Joel L. Lanovaz

indicators of co-contraction . Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 22 ( 4 ), 607 – 611 . PubMed ID: 22382273 doi: 10.1016/j.jelekin.2012.02.001 Maki , B.E. ( 1997 ). Gait changes in older adults: Predictors of falls or indicators of fear? Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 45

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Gregory S. Walsh, Daniel C. Low and Marco Arkesteijn

, Latash ML . Unintentional drifts during quiet stance and voluntary body sway . Exp Brain Res . 2017 ; 235 ( 7 ): 2301 – 2316 . PubMed ID: 28477042 doi:10.1007/s00221-017-4972-x 10.1007/s00221-017-4972-x 28477042 25. Falconer K , Winter DA . Quantitative assessment of co-contraction at the